Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Plant successions from bare ground are known as priseres

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Plant successions from bare ground are known as priseres"— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant successions from bare ground are known as priseres
Plant successions from bare ground are known as priseres. There are four main types of priseres:   Xerosere (Dry) Lithoseres where the plants colonise bare rock e.g. after glacial retreat, Snowdonia or a rocky shore, Oxwich Point, Gower or a newly created volcanic island (e.g. Surtsey, Iceland) Psammosere where plants colonise coastal sand dunes e.g. The south Gower - Oxwich Bay. Hydrosere (Wet) Hydroseres where the plants colonise fresh water, as at a pond margin e.g. Llanfihangel Gobion, Monmouthshire - ox-bow lakes Haloseres where plants colonise salt marshes and sea estuaries e.g. The North shore of the Gower, Lanrhidian salt marsh Priseres K.I 4

2 Prisere : complete succession from initial inorganic (1) too wet/dry conditions to climatic climax vegetation (5?). 5? 1 e.g. Psammosere

3 Initial conditions either
too wet Or too dry Or too alternating wet / dry Possibly with salt Therefore only a few plants can tolerate these harsh conditions No soil BARE INORGANIC SURFACE Mosses and lichens COLONISERS PIONEER COMMUNITY

4 Climax vegetation is the vegetation which establishes itself on a given site for given climatic conditions (in the absence of human action) after a long time Climatic climax vegetation Witham Woods Oxfordshire

5 Plagioclimax subclimax (after deforestation, ploughing, burning
THE POLYCLIMAX THEORY New inorganic (non-vegetated surface) 4 1 3 Secondary succession Primary succession Climax Vegetation 2 1 Primary succession natural interruptions in primary succession Retrogressive succession due to disturbance (natural or human) Secondary succession Biotic subclimax 2 2 3 Edaphic (soil) subclimax 4

6 Seral Stages – temporary stages which develop over time leading to plant succession
1 2 3 4 5 Time goes by (100s of years) or different spatial positions at one time

7 Subclimax An arresting factor halts development e.g. biotic (rabbits, goats, sheep: graze the land and prevent tree growth) e.g. edaphic (salty soil – hinders tree growth) Birch tree subclimax

8 Plagioclimax

9 Primary Succcession on heather moorlands (U.K.)
Post glacial recolonisation in the lower hills Mosses, lichens, hardy grasses Grasses, herbs, some heather Tall shrubs e.g birch Pine, hazel Oak forest

10 From Oak Trees to Heather Moorland
After the Ice Age the primary succession to heather moorland occurred. Humans cleared the trees for farming. The soils lost became leached and lost their fertility. The acid soils did suit heather. Young shoots of heather are ideal for sheep grazing and the moorlands are used for hill farming. The grazing prevented the regrowth of shrubs and trees. Periodic burning (muirburn) removes old wood, releases nutrients and encourages new shoots. The heather is maintained as a plagioclimax.

11 Improved pasture or arable farmland
PLAGIOCLIMAX Oak forest Deflection by humans : cutting, burning, grazing SHRUBBY HEATH Poor drainage burning Liming, fertiliser overgrazing Blanket bog Heather moorland Improved pasture or arable farmland Grassy heaths

Download ppt "Plant successions from bare ground are known as priseres"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google