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Early African Civilizations

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Presentation on theme: "Early African Civilizations"— Presentation transcript:

1 Early African Civilizations
Chapter 7 Early African Civilizations

2 The Impact of Geography
Africa had a diverse topography and resources. Sahara desert- largest desert on earth. Congo and Niger Rivers- both played an important role in the early African Civilizations. ( Why?) ***The Niger River was essential to survival of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai*** Africa’s diverse geography led to diverse cultures( cultural diversity) What are some examples?

3 Emerging Civilizations
Kush- was a busy trading civilization set up between Egypt and the Kushites. The economy of Kush was based on farming/trade. Kush was a major trading empire that provided iron products, ivory, gold, ebony, and slaves to the Romans, India, and Arabia. Axum- was founded by Arabs and combined Arab and African cultures. Was located along the Red Sea which was favorable for trade. Axum made Christianity their major religion until Islam was introduced a few centuries later.

4 Rise of Islam Islam rose from the Arabian Peninsula, and then spread across the region. ***The spreading of Islam is an example of Cultural Diffusion.*** Why so?

5 3 Major Kingdoms of Africa
Ghana Mali Songhai What did they have in common and what were their differences?

6 Ghana, Mali, Songhai All three were powerful kingdoms that controlled the trade routes across the Sahara Desert. (were located near the trans-Sahara trade routes) They traded with many other nations which increased their cultural diffusion and power. Their two largest items of trade were salt/gold.

7 Timbuktu Was considered the commercial and cultural center of West Africa. Was a great center of learning and trade (Islamic) Created wealth and power by trading gold and salt.

8 Mansa Musa Was one of the richest and most powerful kings to rule Mali. He doubled the size of the kingdom and created a strong central government. Musa made Timbuktu into that wealthy powerful learning center. This would eventually lead to the rapid spread of Islam throughout Mali.

9 The Bantu Migration Transfer of ironworking technology
Development of better tools Growth of agriculture Growth of villages.

10 African Society and Culture
“Pan-Africanism”- promoted African unity Most people lived in small villages in the country side. Their sense of identity was determined by their membership in an extended family or lineage group( large communities of multiple extended families) Lineage groups served as the basic building blocks of African society. ***A growth of urban areas (urbanization) would lead to the breakdown of these tribal identities.*** Village to city

11 The Role of the Women They were usually subordinate to men in most of Africa. Women would teach their young daughters how to care for the home and work in the fields. Also, learned how to become good wives/mothers. Why do you think most early societies were male dominant? Is that still the case?

12 Slavery Slaves included people captured in war, debtors, and criminals. They were not seen as inferior but as trusted servants. Good and Bad= some slaves worked long hard hours on farmland or served as soldiers. Others were used in royal households or as domestic servants in private homes ( these slaves usually had the best existence due to the better conditions) What do you think these conditions consisted of? ***The European slave trade destroyed the stability of the African Kingdoms.*** Why so?


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