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American Foreign Policy 1898-1914 Part B. 1.Regarding sea transportation, what link between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans had long been desired by the.

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Presentation on theme: "American Foreign Policy 1898-1914 Part B. 1.Regarding sea transportation, what link between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans had long been desired by the."— Presentation transcript:

1 American Foreign Policy 1898-1914 Part B

2 1.Regarding sea transportation, what link between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans had long been desired by the United States and European powers? They wanted a canal through Central America that would link the two great oceans

3 2. What were some potential sites for a canal? Across Nicaragua, a nation with a large lake Across the Panama Isthmus, an area that belonged to Columbia 3. What did the 1901 Hay-Pauncefote Treaty do? Great Britain gave the U.S. exclusive rights to build and control a Central American canal Prior to this treaty, the U.S. and Britain planned to share custody of the canal

4 4. In 1903, the U.S. decided to build a canal through what route? Panama 5. For $40 million the United States brought the rights to the route from whom? A French company

5 6. But what country controlled the Province of Panama in 1903? Columbia The U.S. needed Columbian permission to begin construction 7. When negotiations between Columbia and the U.S. broke down, what happened? A Panamanian revolt against Columbia broke out On November 3, 1903 nearly a dozen U.S. warships were present offshore when Panama declared its independence from Columbia

6 8. What happened 15 days later? The U.S. and the new nation of Panama reached an agreement in which the United States purchased the “canal zone” for $10 million plus an annual rent of $250,000 Payments were scheduled to begin in 1913

7 9. What were some of the key achievements and events in constructing the Panama Canal? Builders had to fight yellow fever and malaria The soft volcanic soil was hard to remove Work began in 1904 More than 43,000 workers were employed at one point Many of the workers were Blacks from the British West Indies More than 5,600 workers died from accidents or disease It cost the U.S. about $380 million to build

8 10. About how long is the Panama Canal? 51 miles 11. The Panama Canal, due to the hilly terrain, uses locks to raise and lower ships a total of how many feet over the entire journey? 170 feet

9 12. What was the Roosevelt Corollary? In 1904, President Teddy Roosevelt declared that political disorder in Latin America might force the U.S. to intervene in Latin American affairs as a “police power” in order to protect American interests

10 13. What was Dollar Diplomacy? A U.S. policy in which the American government would use American diplomatic/military power to guarantee loan payments from Latin American governments who owed money to American banks

11 14. What was Missionary Diplomacy? Woodrow Wilson’s approach to foreign policy in Latin America in which the U.S. maintained a moral opposition towards Latin American regimes that were oppressive, undemocratic, or a threat to American interests Missionary Diplomacy added the notion that the U.S. had a moral responsibility to promote good behavior by nations in the Western Hemisphere.

12 15. From about 1876 to 1910, who ruled Mexico with an iron hand, so to speak? President Porfirio Diaz 16. In 1911, under the leadership of Francisco Madero, overthrew Diaz and launched what? The Mexican Revolution

13 17. Under Porfirio Diaz, who controlled much of Mexico’s natural resources? Foreign investors 18. Under Porfirio Diaz, what was the lot of most Mexicans? Most were poor

14 19. When Victoriano Heurta overthrew Madero, how did President Woodrow Wilson respond? Wilson refused to recognize (i.e. acknowledge the legitimacy of) the government of Huerta 20. What did the United States do in Mexico in 1914? In response to Mexican arrests of American sailors, Wilson ordered the U.S. Marine Corps to invade and occupy Vera Cruz, a Mexican city on the Gulf of Mexico

15 21. The U.S. seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico nearly brought about what? War between the U.S. and Mexico 22. What happened to the Huerta regime? It collapsed and a new regime under Venustiano Carranza came to power in 1915 Missionary Diplomacy had helped bring about a change of leadership in Mexico Wilson recognized the Carranza government

16 23. What two important Mexican revolutionaries opposed Carranza? Emiliano Zapata Pancho Villa 24. When Wilson backed Carranza, how did Pancho Villa respond? He attacked mining interests in northern Mexico He crossed the U.S. border and attacked Columbus, New Mexico in early 1916

17 25. How did the United States respond to Pancho Villa’s “invasion” of the United States? Wilson sent General “Blackjack” Pershing with a force of American soldiers to chase down Pancho Villa Pershing’s troops never caught Pancho Villa

18 26. In June 1916, U.S. troops clashed with whom? Carranza’s troops War again seemed imminent 27. In February 1917, Wilson did what? Ordered U.S. troops out of Mexico

19 28. In 1917, Mexico created a constitution that did what? Granted Mexican government control over its oil and mineral resources Placed restrictions on foreign investment in Mexico Mexico’s 1917 Constitution is still in effect today

20 29. In 1920, who took power in Mexico? Alvaro Obregon, a moderate The Mexican Revolution was largely over 30. What were several of the United States’ foreign policy achievements of the early 20 th century? Expanded access to foreign markets Built a modern navy Exercised its international “police power” in Latin America

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