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The Roaring Twenties.

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Presentation on theme: "The Roaring Twenties."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Roaring Twenties

2 Postwar Fears Nativism Fear of Communism Fear of Anarchy
Re-emergence of the KKK Quota System Emergency Quota Act of 1921 National Origins Act of 1924 Fear of Communism Red Scare—Palmer Raids Fear of labor agitators Boston Police Strike (1919) Steel Strike (1919) American Federation of Labor—John L. Lewis Fear of Anarchy Sacco & Vanzetti

3 Presidents of the 1920s: A Return to Conservative Politics
Warren G. Harding Republican Elected in 1920 “Return to Normalcy” March 1921 to August 1923 (died in office) Domestic Agenda Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922)—very high Suspect Cabinet—”Ohio Gang” Teapot Dome Scandal—Albert B. Fall Foreign Policy Isolationism & Peace Keeping Washington Naval Conference (1921) Dawes Plan Warren G. Harding Republican Elected in 1920 “Return to Normalcy” March 1921 to August 1923 (died in office) Domestic Issues Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922)—very high Suspect Cabinet—”Ohio Gang” Teapot Dome Scandal—Albert B. Fall Foreign Policy Isolationism & Disarmament Washington Naval Conference (1921) Dawes Plan

4 Presidents of the 1920s: A Return to Conservative Politics
Calvin Coolidge Republican Took office upon death of Harding (1923). Re-elected 1924 August,1923 to March,1929 Domestic Issues Cleaned up scandals of the Harding Administration. Restored the image of the Republican Party. “The business of America is business.” Foreign Policy Isolationism Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)

5 Consumerism of the 1920s: “Spending Money Is the American Way”
Mass Production Assembly line Scientific management (Taylor) Electrical Conveniences Electricity available in more places Refrigerators, Irons, Stoves, Toasters, Vacuums, Furnaces, Lighting Shopping Emergence of Advertising Reinforce buying things that we don’t need Create a need Emergence of Credit The installment plan Down payment, Monthly payments, Interest Buy now! Pay later!

6 Changes in Transportation: The Automobile
Henry Ford (assembly line) Huge impact on society Construction of paved roads Patterns of settlement—suburbs Petroleum industry Rubber industry Glass industry Steel industry Repair shops Parking lots Hotels & Motels Restaurants Amusement parks Dating

7 1920s Cultural Clashes: Religion vs. Science Nativists vs. Immigrants
Race: KKK rises again Prohibition: “Drys” vs. “Wets” Women’s roles: “New Woman” vs. Victorian

8 Cultural Changes: Fundamentalism vs. Modernism
Age-old argument Religion (fundamentalists) vs. science Often rural vs. urban Scopes Trial John Scopes—biology teacher in Tennessee Clarence Darrow—defense attorney William Jennings Bryan—prosecuting attorney Outcome?

9 Immigration Literacy Test Quota System after WWI
1921 Emergency Quota Act 3% of those here in1910 1924 National Origins Act 2% of the people here in 1890 ‘closing’ the Golden Door Eugenics

10 Racism KKK rises again in 1915
Targets Blacks, Jews, Catholics, and Immigrants “invisible Empire” Led by an Imperial Wizard or Grand Dragon

11 New Woman vs. Victorian First decade affected by the Nineteenth Amendment! More women going to college. Women moving into the work place. Typewriters Telephones Married later with fewer children. The Flapper Dress Behavior

12 Cultural Changes: Prohibition
18th Amendment: cannot “manufacture, sell, or transport” alcoholic beverages. Volstead Act: outlined procedures to enforce the amendment—underfunded! Urban vs. Rural– passed by rural strength Drys vs. wets Proof that the “Noble Experiment” failed! Speakeasies Bootleggers

13 Prohibition breeds crime
Crime on the Rise Organized Crime: Al Capone Chicago gangster St. Valentine’s Day Massacre Jailed on tax evasion NASCAR Repealed in 1933 (21st Amendment) Utah cast the deciding vote

14 Rise of Popular Culture: Magazines & Newspapers
Reader’s Digest Time Life

15 Rise of Popular Culture: Literature
Sinclair Lewis Main Street Babbitt F. Scott Fitzgerald “The Jazz Age” The Great Gatsby Ernest Hemingway The Sun Also Rises A Farewell to Arms Edna St. Vincent Millay

16 Rise of Popular Culture: Sports
Participation sports Baseball Football Golf Tennis Swimming Biking Spectator sports Boxing Heroes Gertrude Ederle Jack Dempsey George Herman “Babe” Ruth Red Grange

17 Changes in Transportation: The Airplane
The Wright Brothers (1903) Kitty Hawk, North Carolina Use during World War I “Flaming Coffins” Observation Dog Fights Red Baron vs. Snoopy 1920 Transcontinental Airmail Service Charles Lindbergh (May 20-21, 1927) New York to Paris (nonstop) Solo 33 hours, 29 minutes Perhaps the greatest American hero of the 1920s! Amelia Earhart

18 Rise of Popular Culture: Mass Media
The “Golden Age” of Radio First commercial radio station—KDKA in Pittsburgh News programs Sports Radio programs—comedy, drama, science fiction, children’s programs Music

19 Rise of Popular Culture: Motion Pictures
Charlie Chaplain—”the little tramp” Rudolph Valentino—”heart throb” The Jazz Singer (1927)—first with sound Steamboat Willie (1928) Introduced Mickey Mouse to the world First cartoon with sound

20 Rise of African American Culture: The Harlem Renaissance
Birth of art and literature in the Black community By-product of the Great Migration Writers Claude McKay Langston Hughes Zora Neale Hurston

21 “The Lynching” by Claude McKay
His spirit is smoke ascended to high heaven. His father, by the cruelest way of pain, Had bidden him to his bosom once again; The awful sin remained still unforgiven. All night a bright and solitary star (Perchance the one that ever guided him, Yet gave him up at last to Fate's wild whim) Hugh pitifully o'er the swinging char. Day dawned, and soon the mixed crowds came to view The ghastly body swaying in the sun: The women thronged to look, but never a one Showed sorrow in her eyes of steely blue; And little lads, lynchers that were to be, Danced round the dreadful thing in fiendish glee.

22 “A Negro Speaks of Rivers” By Langston Hughes
I've known rivers: I've known rivers ancient as the world and older than the flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young. I built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to sleep. I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it. I heard the singing of the Mississippi when Abe Lincoln went down to New Orleans, and I've seen its muddy bosom turn all golden in the sunset. I've known rivers: Ancient, dusky rivers.

23 Rise of African American Culture: Marcus Garvey & the UNIA
Argued in opposition to NAACP “Keep Black dollars in Black businesses & the Black community.” “Back to Africa” Movement Raised money Purchased ships (Black Star Line) Many sunk Jailed for mail fraud. Deported from the country.

24 Rise of African American Culture: Jazz Music
Perhaps the greatest cultural symbol of the 1920s. “Blended instrumental ragtime” with “vocal blues.” Improvised! Performers: Louis Armstrong (trumpet) Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington (piano) Bessie Smith (vocals)

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