Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Staph Infections including MRSA

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Staph Infections including MRSA"— Presentation transcript:

1 Staph Infections including MRSA

2 What is a Staph infection?

3 STAPH Staphylococcus aureus, often referred to simply as “staph,” are bacteria commonly carried on the skin or in the nose of healthy people. Occasionally, staph can cause infection; staph bacteria are one of the most common causes of skin infections in the United States. Most of these skin infections are minor (such as pimples and boils) and can be treated without antibiotics (also known as antimicrobials or antibacterials). However, staph bacteria also can cause serious infections (such as surgical wound infections, bloodstream infections, and pneumonia).

The symptoms of a staph infection depends on where the infection is. The staph bacteria can cause: Boils – an abscess, bump, or swelling within the skin. Also called a furuncle.

5 Cellulitis – a “flat” skin infection which can make the skin red, painful and warm but does not have pustules.

6 Folliculitis – an infection of the hair follicles

7 Impetigo – pustules (bulbous impetigo) or honey colored crusted lesions on the skin
May be caused by staph or other bacteria

8 In addition to skin infections, the staph bacteria can cause:
Bacteremia – a blood infection Deep abscesses –an abscess that occurs below the skin surface Endocarditis – an infection on the valves of the heart Food poisoning – vomiting or diarrhea caused by a staph toxin Lymphadenitis – an infection of a lymph gland, which causes it to be red, swollen and painful

9 Lymphangitis – an infection of the lymph channels that drain to lymph glands, causing red streaks in the skin Osteomyelitis – a bone infection Paronychia – an infection of the skin folds of the nails Scalded skin syndrome Septic arthritis – an infection of a joint, like a hip or a knee Styes – an infection of the glands on the eyelid Toxic shock syndrome

10 The Staphylococcus aureus bacteria can also cause less common infections such as pneumonia, ear infections, and sinusitis. However, it is not possible to know whether the infections is caused by staph or another bacteria, like group A Beta-hemolytic streptococcus. And in many cases, it doesn’t matter, as the antibiotic your child has been prescribed will likely treat both bacteria.

11 To make a definitive diagnosis, and to confirm that staph is the bacteria causing the infection, a culture can be done. In the past, most serious staph bacterial infections were treated with a type of penicillin class agent such as oxacillin, penicillin, amoxicillin or a cephalosporin. A sample of the infected area is used to grow the staph bacteria in the laboratory. Tests are done to determine which antibiotics are active for treating the infection. A culture of infected skin is especially useful in recurrent, persistent, or severe infections and in cases of antibiotic failure.

12 Over the past 50 years, treatment of these infections has become more difficult because staph bacteria have become resistant to various antimicrobial agents, including the commonly used penicillin class antibiotics. These are the usual treatments for staph infections. They may include a topical antibiotic cream for simple impetigo, warm compresses and drainage for abscesses, an oral antibiotic, or an intravenous antibiotic for more serious infections.

13 One of those staph bacteria that is resistant to some antibiotics is called

14 What is MRSA?

15 MRSA MRSA stands for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
MRSA are Staph aureus bacteria that have become resistant to this antibiotic. Found in the nose, and sometimes on the skin, but also can grow in wounds and other sites of the body MRSA can no longer be killed by this antibiotic

16 People may be colonized or infected with staph.
Colonization means that the staph is present in or on the body but is not causing illness. Infection means that the staph is present and is causing illness. Signs of illness can include fever, elevated white blood cell count, pus, pneumonia, and inflammation (warmth, redness and swelling).

17 Recurrent skin diseases or open wounds
In general, healthy people are at low risk of getting sick with MRSA. Some risk factors include: Recurrent skin diseases or open wounds Long-term illness or long-term dialysis patient Illicit injecting drug use Surgery Those with weakened immune systems from sickness or chronic disease are the most vulnerable.

18 Contact with other persons with MRSA infection
Been a patient in the hospital or other health care facility within the past year Contact with other persons with MRSA infection Recent antibiotic use Live in crowded settings MRSA infections have been reported among persons in prisons, players of close-contact sports, men who have sex with other men, and other populations.

MRSA is transmitted primarily by contact with a person who has an infection or is colonized with the bacteria. The germ can be spread by direct person-to-person contact with an infected person, or by contact with objects or surfaces contaminated by MRSA. Staph can also come off infected skin onto shared objects and surfaces and get onto the skin of the person who uses the object or surface next. Examples of shared objects that might spread staph include personal hygiene objects (i.e. towels, soap, wound dressings, bandages, etc.), sheets, clothes, benches in saunas or hot tubs, and athletic equipment. In other words, anything that could have touched the skin of a staph-infected person can carry the bacteria to the skin of another person.

20 How can I protect myself from becoming infected?

21 If no visible dirt, use alcohol-based hand sanitizer
WASH YOUR HANDS If no visible dirt, use alcohol-based hand sanitizer Keep cuts and abrasions covered Avoid contact with other people’s wounds Avoid skin-to-skin contact with infected persons Do not share personal items Clean objects and other shared surfaces before you use them Keep your hands clean by washing thoroughly with soap and water. If there is no visible dirt on the skin, you can use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Keep cuts and abrasions clean and covered with a clean bandage until healed. Avoid contact with other people’s wounds or material and surfaces contaminated from wounds. Avoid skin-to-skin contact with persons who have skin infections. Do not share personal items with other persons Clean objects and surfaces that are shared with other persons, such as athletic equipment, before you use them.

Keep infected areas covered Follow doctor’s instructions Wash hands Put disposable waste in a separate trash bag and close tightly before throwing it out Wear gloves Keep infected areas covered with a clean, dry bandage Follow doctor’s instructions on proper care of wound Wash hands Put disposable waste in a separate trash bag and close tightly before throwing it out Use gloves to change bandages and then wash your hands afterwards

23 Do not share personal items
Disinfect all non-clothing and non-disposable items Wash linens and clothes that become soiled Wash utensils and dishes in the usual manner Avoid participating in contact sports If you have a MRSA infection, be sure to tell any health care provider that you have this infection Do not share personal items. Disinfect all non-clothing (and non-disposable items) that come into contact with the wound with a solution of one tablespoon of household bleach mixed with one quart of water (must be prepared fresh daily), or a phenol-containing store-bought cleaning product. Wash linens and clothes that become soiled with hot water and laundry detergent, and then dry clothes in a dryer. Drying clothes in a hot dryer, rather than air-drying , helps kill bacteria in clothes. Wash dishes like you normally would, or in a home dishwasher. Avoid participating in sports with skin-to-skin contact until your infection has healed.

24 And now, let’s look at what MRSA really looks like…

25 MRSA/Staph is often misdiagnosed as spider or insect bites.
• MRSA/Staph spreads by infected skin to healthy skin contact as well as infected objects to healthy skin. It can enter healthy, clean, undamaged skin through such contact. • Washing your hands with soap and warm water can prevent the spread of MRSA/Staph. • MRSA/Staph lives on skin and survives on objects, such as towels and exercise equipment for 24 hours or longer. • If you think you may have MRSA/Staph, consult your doctor or healthcare provider. • For all skin infections, dispose of bandages properly and wash your hands frequently to avoid spreading germs to others.





30 This I do believe is self-explanatory
This I do believe is self-explanatory! The single most important thing that you can do to stop the spread of any germs is to wash your hands

31 What is the most important thing to remember?

32 Wash your hands!!!


34 Acknowledgement The Infectious Disease Control Unit of the Department of State Health Services thanks Ginger Shields, RN Emergency Preparedness Specialist Texarkana-Bowie County Health Department for the creation and use of this presentation.

Download ppt "Staph Infections including MRSA"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google