2 GPS StandardsSAP1. Students will analyze anatomical structures in relationship to their physiological functions.Relate cellular metabolism and transport to homeostasis and cellular reproduction.
3 Learning Goals By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the components of the cell membrane and their functions.Relate cellular transport to homeostasis.Differentiate between passive transport processes and active transport processes.
4 Medical TerminologyUse prefixes, suffixes, and roots sheet to define the following:Use prefixes, suffixes, and roots to define the following:bi-endo-exo-extra-hydro-inter-intra-phago-pino-trans--osis-philic-phobiccytintegralperipheraltransportbilayerextracellularendocytosisexocytosishydrophilichydrophobicintegral proteinintracellularperipheral proteinphagocytosispinocytosisprefix suffix root
5 The Cell MembraneThe cell membrane is a selectively permeable membrane that determines which molecules can come into the cell and which molecules can leave the cell.
6 Transverse Section of the cell membrane NucleusCell MembraneTransverse Section of the cell membrane
8 Cell Membrane Components Phospholipid bilayerMade up ofHydrophilic headHydrophobic tailAllows small molecules, like water and gases, to pass through the membrane easily
9 Cell Membrane Components Continued ProteinsIntegral proteinsPermanently imbedded in the membraneUsed as carrier proteins for large moleculesPeripheral proteinsLoosely bonded to the internal and external surfaces of the membraneMainly used in cell to cell communication and the immune response
10 Passive TransportA process that moves molecules across the cell membrane without energy from the cellMoves molecules from high to low concentrationsLike riding a bike downhillProcessesDiffusionOsmosisFacilitated Diffusion
11 DiffusionThe movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
13 OsmosisThe diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.Osmotic solutions can beHypotonic (hypo- means “less than”)Isotonic (iso- means “the same”)Hypertonic (hyper- means “more than”)
19 Active TransportA process that drives large molecules across the cell membrane from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentrationLike riding a bike uphillProcessesEndocytosisExocytosisIon Pumps
20 EndocytosisMolecules are brought into the cell by vesicles formed from the cell membraneProcessesPinocytosis. The cell takes tiny droplets from its surroundings into tiny vesicles.Phagocytosis. The vesicle engulfs food particles that are digested by lysosomes.