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Unit Three: Early Expansion

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1 Unit Three: Early Expansion

2 SSUSH6 SSUSH6 The student will analyze the nature of territorial and population growth and the impact of this growth in the early decades of the new nation.

3 SSUSH6a. Explain the Northwest Ordinance’s importance in the westward migration of Americans, and on slavery, public education, and the addition of new states.

4 Achievements under the Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation was not all bad. It did provide the nation with an orderly way to organize new territories.

5 Two Land Ordinances The central gov’t received lands called the Northwest Territory – an area bounded by the Mississippi River, the Ohio River, and the Great Lakes. To provide for the settling and governing of the territory, Congress passed two laws: the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.

6 Land Ordinance of 1785 Land Ordinance of 1785
Divided lands into 36 sections each One section of each township be used to support public education. It sold in 640 acre section at no less than a $1 per acre.

7 Northwest Land Ordinance of 1787
The territory would be divided into no fewer than three no more than five territories, each would become a state (These would later become Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin)

8 Once the territory reached 5000 male adults, it could create a territorial legislature, together with a governor and judges appointed by Congress. At 60,000 people, it could adopt a state constitution and apply for statehood. It prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory, encouraged education, and provided a “bill of rights.”

9 Significance (importance)
The Land Ordinance created a central policy for the sale of western lands and showed an interest in public education. The Northwest Ordinance created a way for territories to become states. It also treated the territories with respect.

10 SSUSH6b b. Describe Jefferson’s diplomacy in obtaining the Louisiana Purchase from France and the territory’s exploration by Lewis and Clark.

11 Louisiana Purchase SSUSH6b

12 Ways the United States have acquired land in the past.
Warfare Purchasing land Treaty

13 SSUSH6b SSUSH6 The student will analyze the nature of territorial and population growth and the impact of this growth in the early decades of the new nation. b. Describe Jefferson’s diplomacy in obtaining the Louisiana Purchase from France and the territory’s exploration by Lewis and Clark.

14 Louisiana Purchase, 1803 Purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million dollars. Why? France had taken control of the Mississippi River. They charged the USA money to trade at the mouth of the Mississippi River. (New Orleans) Thomas Jefferson feared that Napoleon Bonaparte would take away US right of deposit in New Orleans Negotiated treaty with Napoleon Bonaparte to purchase the Louisiana territory.

15 Louisiana Purchase, 1803

16 Problems Thomas Jefferson believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution. Purchasing land was not mentioned in the Constitution, He overcame his doubts and purchased the land.

17 Consequences of the Louisiana Purchase
Doubled the size of the USA Gave the United States the Mississippi River and New Orleans.

18 Lewis and Clark ( ) Congress agreed to finance an expedition to explore the area. Jefferson choose Meriwether Lewis, his private secretary, to lead the expedition. Lewis choose William Clark as his companion officer.

19 Lewis and Clark Expedition
It started from Missouri in the spring of 1804. Its goals were to: Search for river routes to the western ocean. Make contact with the Native Americans living in the territory Gather information about the area’s natural resources.

20 Sacajawea and York To help a French trapper was hired. His wife, Sacajawea (a Shoshone Native American) was used as an interpreter. York, a slave belonging to Clark, was instrumental in smoothing the transition of the explorers.

21 c. Explain major reasons for the War of 1812 and the war’s significance on the development of a national identity.

22 War of 1812 War of 1812 Main causes Impressment  British sailors forcing American sailors to work for them Freedom of the seas US citizens felt threaten by the British presence in Canada. June 18, 1812 – Congress declared war on Great Britain

23 War Hawks vs. Doves War Hawks like Senator John C. Calhoun of SC and Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky wanted war in a hope to gain more land out west. War Hawks – term used to describe people who desire war. Doves like many in the North or New England states often did not want war because they were concerned it would hurt their business dealings with Great Britain. Doves - term used to describe people who want peace.

24 Events of the War The British invaded Washington, DC and burned the White House. Battle of Fort McHenry - a victory for the United States. Frances Scott Key wrote the Star Spangled Banner (later to become the national anthem)

25 Events of the War of 1812 Treaty of Ghent (December 1914)
Ended the war in a stalemate. (No one loses, no one wins.) Battle of New Orleans was a victory but was fought several weeks after the Treaty of Ghent was signed. The Battle of New Orleans made Andrew Jackson a national hero

26 War’s significance on the development of a national identity.
Star-Spangled Banner  Francis Scott Key Nationalism Belief that a person should put the country’s interest over an individuals Andrew Jackson becomes a national hero.

27 National Identity The war produced a strong sense of national identity
Before the war manufacturing had lagged behind the Europeans. Because the war nearly stopped trade between Europe and the USA, the USA began to manufacture its own goods. Northern manufacturers begin to prosper (do well) and Southern farmers made huge amounts of money off King Cotton. (The cotton gin had been created in 1794)


29 Era of Good Feelings (1817-1824)
James Monroe (the last of the Founding Father presidents) was elected in 1817 Many felt new nationalistic feelings.

30 Henry Clay and the American System
Sen. Henry Clay called for several changes to help the country grow. Federal investment in infrastructure (roads,etc.) A tariff to protect trade

31 Problems Political leaders argued over who would pay for the improvements. The Federal gov’t or the state gov’t.

32 d. Describe the construction of the Erie Canal, the rise of New York City, and the development of the nation’s infrastructure.

33 The Erie Canal In the early 1800s, New York decided to build the Erie canal (a canal is a man made waterway). The water way increase trade between those in the Ohio River Valley and the Atlantic Ocean.

34 e. Describe the reasons for and importance of the Monroe Doctrine.

35 The Monroe Doctrine James Monroe faced a dilemma. European nations begin to think about farther colonization of Latin America (South America and the Caribbean's.) The previous wars over seas had caused them to lose interests in these areas.

36 James Monroe issued the Monroe doctrine saying the United States would not tolerate European intervention in the affairs of any independent nations in the Americas. Any future attempts to colonize would be considered an act of aggression. The USA also promised that it would not become involved in the internal affairs of other America nations, nor in those of European nations.

37 GPS 7 Students will explain the process of economic growth, its regional and national impact in the first half of the 19th century, ant the different responses to it.

38 SSUSH7a a. Explain the impact of the Industrial Revolution as seen in Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin and his development of interchangeable parts for muskets.

39 Impact of the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution (a time when advances in technology led to massive economic changes) started in Great Britain around 1750. IT started in the textile industry. It relied on mechanization (use of machines) instead of a cottage industry (each part was made by hand.)

40 Eli Whitney Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in This invention separated the seeds from cotton making it profitable. Effect The South became a “cotton kingdom” where “King Cotton” ruled. Its led to a boom (increase) in cotton plantations. It made the South dependent on slave labor.

41 Interchangeable parts
Eli Whitney also created the interchangeable parts. He was trying to manufacture muskets in large numbers. Each part was so precisely made it could fit another rifle. This ideal spread to other industries. A key aspect of the new technologies was the use of interchangeable parts which could be replaced without disposing of an entire machine.

42 b. Describe the westward growth of the United States; include the emerging concept of Manifest Destiny.

43 Describe westward growth of the United States
By the middle of the 1800s, most Americans believed it was the nation’s destiny to expand to the Pacific Ocean. This ideal was called Manifest Destiny.

44 Manifest Destiny was the name given to the idea that the United States would naturally occupy the territory between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. The word manifest means ―obvious,‖ and the word destiny means ―fate.‖ According to Manifest Destiny, the obvious fate of the United States was to expand ―from sea to shining sea.‖

45 Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny was the belief that the nation had a sacred duty to conquer the West.

46 Westward Growth of the United States
Westward Growth of the United States was motivated by three main reasons: 1. The desire of most Americans to own their own land. 2. The discovery of gold and other valuable resources. 3. The belief that the United States was destined to stretch across North America


48 c. Describe reform movements, specifically temperance, abolitionism, and public school.

49 Reform Movements A number of social reform movements begin during the 1800s. They aimed to transform the society in beneficial ways. Movements Temperance Movement Abolitionist Movement Education reform movement Women’s movement

50 Temperance Movement In the early 1800s (19th century), the temperance movement begin to gain popularity. The Temperance movement wanted to moderate the use of alcohol and late advocated total abstinence. Many states passed laws prohibiting its sale. It owed its success to women and church leaders in the US.

51 Abolitionism In the 1830s, abolitionism gained momentum (strength, power, influence.) Abolitionism was the movement to abolish (end) slavery. In the South, abolitionism was frowned upon but in the North it was gaining support.

52 Black abolitionist were usually former slaves.
Members of the abolitionist movement was mostly white, educated people from New England (many were Quakers.) Ex. - Harriet Beecher Stowe writer of Uncle Tom’s Cabin and her brother Henry Beecher. Black abolitionist were usually former slaves. It eventually gained enough respectability and support that it started a new political party (the Republican Party) and changed the course of a nation (the Civil War.)

53 Angelina and Sarah Grimke
Southern women who were both abolitionists.

54 Frederick Douglass Frederick Douglass - ex-slave who published the abolitionist paper, The North Star.

55 William Lloyd Garrison
An abolitionist who believed in immediate abolishment of slavery. Published The Liberator, a abolitionist newspaper.

56 Argument about ending slavery
Two arguments for ending slavery Immediately end slavery Gradually end slavery

57 Horace Mann and education reform
Horace Mann was from Massachusetts and advocated education reform. He wanted men and women to have assess to public education. He believed that education was essential to democracy’s success.

58 He help to create the state Board of Education in Massachusetts
He help to create the state Board of Education in Massachusetts. The first of its kind in the USA. His effort caused other states to be inspired by his efforts.

59 d. Explain women’s efforts to gain suffrage; include Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the Seneca Falls Convention.

60 Explain women’s efforts to gain suffrage.
Women participated in the abolitionist and temperance movement, but faced discrimination from men. This led to the Women’s Rights Movement. Women such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton help to organize the first women’s right convention known as Seneca Falls Conference in 1848.

61 Elizabeth Cady Stanton used this as an opportunity to call for suffrage for women.
Suffrage means the right to vote. The Seneca Falls Convention drew attention to the plight of women.

62 e. Explain Jacksonian Democracy, expanding suffrage, the rise of popular political culture, and the development of American nationalism

63 Jacksonian Democracy A great supporter of Manifest Destiny was Andrew Jackson. Jackson’s Achievements Winner of the Battle of New Orleans He had forced the Spanish to make concessions over Florida. An action which led to Florida becoming a US territory.

64 Andrew Jackson He was known as the “Common Man”
Unlike previous political leaders, he was born poor and had achieved despite being uneducated and orphaned at age 14. He was the first to be elected from west of the Appalachian Mountains.

65 “Corrupt Bargaining” He ran for president in the election of 1824 but lost when the election became a tie between John Quincy Adams and himself. The election was called the election of “Corrupt Bargaining” because he won the popular vote but not the electoral collage. The House of Representatives had to break the tie and its believed Henry Clay, one of his opponents, may have used his influence to have John Quincy Adams elected.

66 Election of 1828 He won the election of 1828 to become the nation’s first “Common Man’s” president.

67 Popular Culture Popular political culture increased during Jackson presidential campaigns. Jackson‘s side accused his opponent of flattering European royalty and misusing public funds. The opponent accused Jackson of unfaithfulness in his marriage, of massacring Native Americans, of illegally executing convicted soldiers, and of dueling. These accusations were publicized in songs, pamphlets, posters, and lapel buttons. A voter could find all these at the first-ever campaign rallies and barbecues.

68 Jacksonian Democracy Universal male Suffrage
Jackson believed strongly in western expansion and the rights of white frontier settlers. He resented “eastern elites” and political leaders who seem to favor the wealthy. Therefore, he backed universal suffrage Universal suffrage – all white men should be free to vote, not just those that owned property. Most states would drop the property requirement during his time in office.

69 He also wanted to simplify the political process for the average person to understand.

70 Spoil System Jackson instituted the spoils system – rewarding his political supports with government positions. It set a precedents for rewarding faithful supporters with government jobs. He thought it would promote involvement in government but ultimate created an atmosphere of corruption.

71 Laissez-faire economics
Jackson and his followers believed in laissez-faire economics (gov’t should not regulate business or pass policy to help businessmen). He did not necessarily set out to punish the wealthy businessmen but wanted small business people to have an opportunity to succeed like the wealthy.

72 Jackson’s strict interpretation of the Constitution
Jackson had a strict interpretation of the US Constitution. However, he pushed the boundaries of the president’s office. He still believed that the gov’t powers should be limited to those in the Constitution.

73 American Nationalism American nationalism spread with the belief in Manifest Destiny. They believed their nation was different than, and superior to, other nations because most Americans of that time shared the Protestant religion and English language, ancestry, and culture.

74 They believed it was their duty to expand the hold of the their religion, language, ancestry, and culture all the way to the Pacific Ocean to remake all of North America as the Founding Fathers had remade the Atlantic coast. Altogether, these beliefs comprise American nationalism.

75 Practice questions 1. Who invented the cotton gin and interchangeable parts? Eli Whitney Samuel Slater Robert Fulton Cyrus McCormick

76 Practice Question Elizabeth Cady Stanton is most identified with
Jacksonian Democracy education reform Abolition women’s suffrage

77 Practice Questions What was significant about he Seneca Falls Convention?

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