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Social Studies Acceleration Grade 8

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1 Social Studies Acceleration Grade 8
Spring Intervention 2009

2 Georgia Performance Standards
SSCG1 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the political philosophies that shaped the development of United States constitutional government. a. Analyze key ideas of limited government and the rule of law as seen in the Magna Carta, the Petition of Rights, and the English Bill of Rights. b. Analyze the writings of Hobbes (Leviathan), Locke (Second Treatise on Government), and Montesquieu (The Spirit of Laws) as they affect our concept of government. SSCG2 The student will analyze the natural rights philosophy and the nature of government expressed in the Declaration of Independence. a. Compare and contrast the Declaration of Independence and the Social Contract Theory. b. Evaluate the Declaration of Independence as a persuasive argument. SSCG3 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the United States Constitution. a. Explain the main ideas in debate over ratification; include those in The Federalist. b. Analyze the purpose of government stated in the Preamble of the United States Constitution. c. Explain the fundamental principles upon which the United States Constitution is based; include the rule of law, popular sovereignty, separation of powers, checks and balances, and federalism.

3 Rule of Law The rule of law requires both citizens and governments to be subject to known and standing laws.

4 Do you agree or disagree with former President Nixon
Do you agree or disagree with former President Nixon? (Defend Your Position-Discussion) President Richard Nixon David Frost (reporter) “So what in a sense, you're saying is that there are certain situations, and the Huston Plan or that part of it was one of them, where the president can decide that it's in the best interests of the nation or something, and do something illegal.” Richard Nixon: “Well, when the president does it that means that it is not illegal.”

5 Limited Government (Discussion)
Why should government power be limited? How can we limit government power?

6 Limited Government Government can be limited by dividing power horizontally among different governing units, each with its own geographical and functional interests, as among national, regional, and local or municipal governments. Government can be limited by delegating powers to it for explicit purposes and reserving all remaining power to the people and, in this case, the communities. Power may also be limited by balancing it within the federal government, as among its legislative, executive, and judicial functions.

7 Magna Carta King John of England agreed, in 1215, to the demands of his barons and authorized that handwritten copies of Magna Carta be prepared on parchment, affixed with his seal, and publicly read throughout the realm. Thus he bound not only himself but his "heirs, for ever" to grant "to all freemen of our kingdom" the rights and liberties the great charter described. With Magna Carta, King John placed himself and England's future sovereigns and magistrates within the rule of law.

8 Plain English Please! Students will read and discuss the highlighted sections of the Magna Carta. Students will re-write the highlighted passages in modern English.

9 Petition of Rights Petition of Right, a statute of the English Parliament passed in 1628 and accepted by Charles I. This petition stated several fundamental principles of the English constitution. Parliament passed the petition as a reaction against the arbitrary rule of King Charles. The petition restated some of the ancient rights and privileges of Englishmen, and reaffirmed four great principles: no taxes should be levied without the consent of Parliament; no freeman should be imprisoned except by the law of the land; no soldiers should be billeted in citizens' homes without payment; and martial law should not be proclaimed in time of peace. Charles accepted the petition to get the taxes he wanted, but he continued his arbitrary rule. Eventually he was defeated in the Civil War and was put to death.

10 English Bill of Rights The English Bill of Rights was designed to control the power of kings and queens and to make them subject to laws passed by Parliament. This bill was a precursor to the American Bill of Rights, and set out strict limits on the Royal Family's legal prerogatives such as a prohibition against arbitrary suspension of Parliament's laws. More importantly, it limited the right to raise money through taxation to Parliament. Students will read and discuss the highlighted sections of this document.

11 View Lesson 2 English and Enlightenment Traditions
(lesson time: about 15 minutes) click on: the above link to open the website click on: Lesson 2, click on: play button for the first presentation click on: second top Enlightenment Political Philosophies click on: Glossary (top of the page)

12 Limited Government & Rule of Law
Did you see evidence of limited government and the rule of law in the Magna Carta, the Petition of Rights, and the English Bill of Rights?

13 The Big Thinkers! Hobbes Locke Montesquieu

14 Hobbes Leviathan Hobbes depicts the natural condition of mankind--known as the state of nature--as inherently violent and awash with fear. The state of nature is the "war of every man against every man," in which people constantly seek to destroy one another. This state is so horrible that human beings naturally seek peace, and the best way to achieve peace is to construct the Leviathan through social contract.

15 Social Contract Theory
Social Contract Theory, nearly as old as philosophy itself, is the view that persons' moral and/or political obligations are dependent upon a contract or agreement between them to form society. After Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau are the best known proponents of this enormously influential theory, which has been one of the most dominant theories within moral and political theory throughout the history of the modern West.

16 Locke Second Treatise on Government The Second Treatise of Government places sovereignty into the hands of the people. Locke's fundamental argument is that people are equal and invested with natural rights in a state of nature in which they live free from outside rule. In the state of nature, natural law governs behavior, and each person has license to execute that law against someone who wrongs them by infringing on their rights.

17 Montesquieu The Spirit of Laws
Montesquieu advocates constitutionalism and the separation of powers, the abolition of slavery, the preservation of civil liberties and the rule of law, and the idea that political and legal institutions ought to reflect the social and geographical character of each particular community.

18 The Big Thinkers: Mini-assessment
Hobbes Locke Montesquieu A. The Second Treatise of Government places sovereignty into the hands of the people. B. He advocates for constitutionalism and the separation of powers. C. The best way to achieve peace is to construct the Leviathan through social contract.

19 King George III & Great Britain need more $
French and Indian War This war between Britain and France ended with the victorious British deeply in debt and demanding more revenue from the colonies. With the defeat of the French, the colonies became less dependent on Britain for protection. The British increase taxes on the 13 American colonies.

20 Revolutionary War The American Revolution began in 1775 as open conflict between the united thirteen colonies and Great Britain. By the Treaty of Paris that ended the war in 1783, the colonies had won their independence. While no one event can be pointed to as the actual cause of the revolution, the war began as a disagreement over the way in which Great Britain treated the colonies versus the way the colonies felt they should be treated. Americans felt they deserved all the rights of Englishmen. The British, on the other hand, felt that the colonies were created to be used in the way that best suited the crown and parliament. This conflict is embodied in one of the rallying cries of the American Revolution: No Taxation Without Representation.

21 View Revolutionary War Lesson 13
click on: the above link to open the website click on: Lesson 13, click on: play button for the first presentation click on: second top (some lessons have three presentations) click on: Glossary or Timeline (top of the page)

22 July 4th Why do Americans celebrate the 4th of July?

23 The first painting that Trumbull completed for the Rotunda shows the presentation of the Declaration of Independence in what is now called Independence Hall, Philadelphia.

24 Declaration of Independence
Drafted by Thomas Jefferson between June 11 and June 28, 1776, the Declaration of Independence is at once the nation's most cherished symbol of liberty and Jefferson's most enduring monument. Here, in exalted and unforgettable phrases, Jefferson expressed the convictions in the minds and hearts of the American people. The political philosophy of the Declaration was not new; its ideals of individual liberty had already been expressed by John Locke and the Continental philosophers. What Jefferson did was to summarize this philosophy in "self-evident truths" and set forth a list of grievances against the King in order to justify before the world the breaking of ties between the colonies and the mother country.

25 Primary Source Analysis: The Declaration Of Independence
What is a primary source? autobiographies, diaries, , interviews, letters, minutes, news film footage, official records, photographs, raw research data, speeches, art, drama, films, music, novels, poetry, buildings, clothing, DNA, furniture, jewelry, pottery Using a copy of the Declaration of Independence, students will analyze the highlighted sections by responding to the primary source handout.

26 View Lesson 12 Declaration of Independence
View Declaration of Independence click on: the above link to open the website click on: Lesson 12 click on: play button for the first presentation click on: second top (some lessons have more than 2 presentations) click on: Glossary or Timeline (top of the page)

27 Loyalist or Rebel Brainstorm a list of the advantages and disadvantages of independence.

28 The Founding Fathers The signers of the Declaration of Independence.
Read and Discuss

29 Franklin v. Franklin Assignment: After reading the biography of Benjamin Franklin and “My Son My Enemy”, write a response to the question below. Loyalist or Patriot Benjamin Franklin and his son William took different sides in the American Revolution. They did not speak to each other after the war began. How do you think your relationship would be affected if you disagreed with a member of your family about politics?

30 The U.S. Constitution What is a constitution?
A document that outlines the structure and function of government.

31 Articles of Confederation
The Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation, the first constitution of the United States, on November 15, However, ratification of the Articles of Confederation by all thirteen states did not occur until March 1, The Articles created a loose confederation of sovereign states and a weak central government, leaving most of the power with the state governments.

32 Problems With The “Articles”
1) Under the Articles there was only a unicameral legislature so that there was no separation of powers. 2) The central government under the Articles was too weak since the majority of the power rested with the states. 3) Congress, under the Articles, did not have the power to tax which meant that they could never put their finances in order. 4) In order to change or amend the Articles, unanimous approval of the states was required which essentially meant that changes to the Articles were impossible. 5) For any major laws to pass they had to be approved by 9 or the 13 states which proved difficult to do so that even the normal business of running a government was difficult. 6) Under the Articles, Congress did not have the power to regulate commerce which will cause competition between states as well as diplomatic issues,

33 U.S. Constitution The Constitution was written in Yes, it is over 200 years old. We actually have old copies of what was created. The master copies are stored at the National Archives in Washington D.C

34 Writing the U.S. Constitution
From May to September 1787 a group of men known as the Framers met. The Framers talked about what should be in the Constitution. The United States was a brand new country. The United States had a government that did not work very well. The Framers met to find a new way of running the country. This meeting is called The Convention. Some of the Framers are famous to us today. They include James Madison, Ben Franklin, and George Washington.

35 The Constitutional Convention
When the Constitution was written, the Framers knew their creation was not perfect. They knew that other people would have good ideas for the Constitution. They wanted to be sure that it wasn't too hard to make changes. They also wanted to be sure that it wasn't too easy. The Framers added an amendment process. An amendment to the Constitution is a change that can add to the Constitution or change an older part of it. Originally, some people did not want to ratify the Constitution. One big reason was that it did not have a bill of rights. A bill of rights is a list of rights that belong to the people. The government is not allowed to break these rights. Some of these rights might sound familiar: the right of free speech; the right to practice your own religion; the right to be silent if you are arrested. The original Constitution had no bill of rights. Many of the Framers did not think it was needed. But many people wanted one. So, promises were made to add one, using the amendment process. Soon, the new government started meeting. Congress proposed the Bill of Rights. A list of twelve changes was sent to the states. In 1791, ten of those changes were agreed to by the states. The ten changes were added to the Constitution. These ten changes are called the "Bill of Rights."

36 US Constitution: The Framers
Conflict: Framers did not always agree Compromise

37 Conflict The VIRGINIA PLAN A bicameral legislature (two houses)
Both house's membership determined proportionately The lower house was elected by the people The upper house was elected by the lower house The legislature was very powerful An executive was planned, but would exist to ensure the will of the legislature was carried out, and so was chosen by the legislature Formation of a judiciary, with life-terms of service The executive and some of the national judiciary would have the power to veto legislation, subject to override National veto power over any state legislation The NEW JERSEY PLAN The current Congress was maintained, but granted new powers - for example, the Congress could set taxes and force their collection An executive, elected by Congress, was created - the Plan allowed for a multi-person executive The executives served a single term and were subject to recall based on the request of state governors A judiciary appointed by the executives, with life-terms of service Laws set by the Congress took precedence over state law

38 The GREAT Compromise A bicameral legislature
The lower house, the House of Delegates, was elected by the people, with proportional representation The upper house, the Senate, elected by the House of Delegates, four from each of four districts, with four year terms An executive called the President, elected by the legislature A Council of Revision consisting of the President and some or all of his Cabinet, with a veto over bills National veto power over any state legislation A judiciary was established

39 The Framers & Slavery Slavery is referred to in a couple of places. For one thing, there was the 3/5 Compromise where every 5 slaves counted as 3 people in terms of apportionment for the House of Representatives. Further, the government was given the power to restrict the slave trade. Finally, there was a section where it says that if people held to service or labor (slavery) in one state escape them must not be freed by the laws of another state.

40 The Federalist & Anti-Federalist
Generally speaking, the federalists were in favor of ratification of the Constitution. John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison coordinated their efforts and wrote a series of 85 letters under the name "Publius." These letters both explained the new Constitution and answered the charges of the Anti-Federalists. The letters were collected into a volume called "The Federalist," or "The Federalist Papers." Anti-Federalist Those who opposed the Constitution actually wanted a more purely federal system, they were more or less forced into taking the name "Anti-Federalists." These men had many reasons to oppose the Constitution. They did not feel that a republican form of government could work on a national scale. They also did not feel that the rights of the individual were properly or sufficiently protected by the new Constitution. They saw themselves as the true heirs of the spirit of the Revolution. Some very notable persons in United States history counted themselves Anti-Federalists, like Patrick Henry, Thomas Paine, George Mason, George Clinton, and Luther Martin. "The Anti-Federalist Papers“ wrote letters and speeches in support of their point of view.

41 The Federalist: Hamilton, Madison, Jay

42 Anti-Federalist Patrick Henry, Thomas Paine

43 View Lesson 17 Federalist v. Anti-Federalists
View Federalist v. Anti-Federalist click on: the above link to open the website click on: Lesson 17 click on: play button for the first presentation click on: second top (some lessons have more than 2 presentations) click on: Glossary or Timeline (top of the page)

44 The Federalist Papers Federalist No. 10
The Federalist no. 10 show Madison's understanding of the primary threats to government and, even more importantly, present a logical counter to such threats. From the very beginning of this paper, Madison expresses the need of government to break and control the potential problems created by faction. He points out how the current government under the Articles of Confederation has many problems, problems created only by ourselves. Indeed it is also said that faction is what these problems can be traced to Federalist No. 51 The Federalist no. 51 goes on to explain more of the advantages of the new government. His first area to hit on are the separation of powers, the three branches of government which each are independent of one another. He defines how the separation of powers, by having three branches with none being dependent on another and each with defined powers, offers the best security for the people who are being represented through this government.

45 Primary Source Analysis (Point of View)
Students pretend to be Anti-Federalists and will write a rebuttal paragraph to the highlighted sections of Federalist No. 10 and Federalist No.51.

46 U.S. Constitution: Structure
Preamble Article I. Legislative Department (Congress) Article II. Executive Department (President) Article III. Judicial Department (Courts) Article IV. States' Relations Article V. Mode of Amendment Article VI. Prior Debts, National Supremacy, Oaths of Office Article VII. Ratification

47 View Lesson 5-The Constitution
click on: the above link to open the website click on: Lesson 5, click on: play button for the presentation click on: second top Structure of the Constitution click on: Glossary (top of the page)

48 U.S. Constitution: Functions (Separation of Powers)
Legislative (Congress) Executive (President) Judicial (Courts) make the laws carries out federal laws and recommends new ones interpreting the Constitution (Supreme Court) Are laws constitutional? originating spending bills (House of Representatives) directs national defense (commander-in-chief) foreign policy Supreme Court may decide if a convicted person received a fair trial (the Supreme Court picks which cases it wants to hear and rule on) approving treaties (Senate). vetoing laws impeaching officials (House-charges) (Senate-trial) Appointments (some require senate approval)

49 View Lesson 19 & 20: The President
(follow the same steps from the previous lessons)

50 Checks & Balances For example: The President may veto a law passed by Congress. For example: Congress can override that veto with a vote of two-thirds of both houses. For example: The Supreme Court may check Congress by declaring a law unconstitutional. The power is balanced by the fact that members of the Supreme Court are appointed by the president. Those appointments have to be approved by Congress.

51 View Lessons 16 & 17: House and Senate
(follow the same steps from the previous lessons)

52 View Lessons 30 & 31: Supreme Court
(follow the same steps from the previous lessons)

53 Assessment Suggestions
Students may create a power point in support (federalist) or opposition (anti-federalist) of the US Constitution. Students may design their own US Constitution. Students may rewrite the Declaration of Independence in their own words (modern translation). Students may design a newspaper reporting on Loyalist and Rebels in 1775 or 1776.

54 Vocabulary (Commonly Used In the 9th Government Course-Discussion)
preeminent aristocracy inalienable ratification status quo advocate barred aggregation irreligious gubernatorial plurality respondent enumerate non-partisan affiliation demographic inherent subsequent dissent

55 “Academic Writing” : AP Social Studies
What is a thesis statement? A thesis statement declares what you believe and what you intend to prove.

56 Thesis Statement: TIPS
It avoids the first person. ("I believe," "In my opinion") It anticipates and refutes the counter-arguments. It avoids vague language (like "it seems").

57 Thesis Samples The Simpsons represents the greatest animated show in the history of television.  The ability to purchase television advertising is essential for any candidate's bid for election to the Senate because television reaches millions of people and thus has the ability to dramatically increase name recognition. A young person in the Middle Ages had very different expectations about marriage, family, and personal freedom than do young adults today.

58 Practice Writing Good Thesis Statements
Students will write a thesis statement about the following: Rule of Law Separation of Powers Checks and Balances

59 Teacher Resources Power Point Vocabulary
Lessons-Presentations website (2 presentations & glossary per lesson) Assessment Recommendations Magna Carta, (slide 8, Plain English Please activity –primary source) Petition of Rights English Bill of Rights (slide 10,Read & Discuss highlighted sections) Declaration of Independence (slide 23, primary source analysis-handout) Federalists Papers No. 10 & No. 51(slide 39, pretend you are an anti-Federalist: write a rebuttal to the highlighted section of each Federalist Paper) The signers of the Declaration of Independence (slide 25, reading selection) Benjamin Franklin (biography), My Son My Enemy (slide 26, reading & writing prompt)

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