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Classification of Organisms

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1 Classification of Organisms
Chapter 14

2 Categories of Biological Classification
Taxonomy – The science of naming and classifying organisms 1750s Carl Linnaeus uses binomial nomenclature: 2 part Latin name for each organism Apis mellifera – European honeybee

3 Now called scientific names and are made up of genus and species name
Genus is capital, comes first, contains similar species Species is lowercase, particular kind of organism within a genus Carcharodon carcharias Ursus maritimus

4 Scientific Names Written Strigiphilus garylarsoni
Apis mellifera A. mellifera after full name is given once All languages use same names and system Rules set up 2 Latin words or words following Latin rules 2 different organisms cannot have same name Strigiphilus garylarsoni Louse named for Far Side cartoonist because he made science jokes Masiakasaurus knopfleri Dinosaur named for guitarist because they listened to his music while digging

5 Classifying Organisms
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

6 Classification of Honeybees
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Hymenoptera Apidae Apis Apis mellifera

7 Humans Monkey Horse Penguin
Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Chordata Chordata Chordata Chordata Mammalia Mammalia Mammalia Aves Primata Primata Perissodactyla Sphenisciformes Hominidae Cebidae Equidae Spheniscidae Homo Alouatta Equus Aptenodytes sapiens pigra caballus forsteri

8 How can you remember? King Phillip Came Over For Good Soup

9 14.2 How Biologists Classify Organisms
Biological species – group of natural populations that are interbreeding or that could interbreed, and that are reproductively isolated from other such groups Hybrid – offspring of individuals from different species that interbreed and produce fertile offspring

10 Other Hybrids Cama Wolphin Liger Goat Boy Zony

11 Evolutionary History Phylogeny – evolutionary history
When trying to classify organisms based on similarities, it can be misleading Wing of a bat is different from a wing of a bird Convergent evolution – similarities evolve in unrelated species Called analogous characters

12 Cladistics Method of analysis that reconstructs phylogenies using relationships based on shared characters Believed to show sequence of evolution Ancestral Character – evolved from a common ancestor of both groups Backbone – ancestral to both birds and mammals Derived Character – evolved in an ancestor of one group but not of the other Feathers in birds but not in mammals

13 Organisms that share derived characters are grouped together
Cladistics is based on idea that shared derived characters show that 2 groups are closely related but ancestral characters don’t Lizards and dogs have the shared ancestral character of limbs, whales do not have limbs, but their ancestors did But dogs and whales have the shared derived character of mammary glands; not found in lizards or lizard ancestors; dogs and whales are closer Cladogram – branching diagram that shows evolutionary relationships among groups Organisms that share derived characters are grouped together As groups evolve new derived characters appear that weren’t there before


15 Evolutionary Systematics
Different traits given different degrees of importance Using this produces a phylogenetic tree


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