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Phylogeny and Systematics

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1 Phylogeny and Systematics
Chapter 25 Phylogeny and Systematics

2 Overview: Investigating the Tree of Life
This chapter describes how biologists trace phylogeny The evolutionary history of a species or group of related species

3 Biologists draw on the fossil record
Which provides information about ancient organisms Figure 25.1

4 Biologists also use systematics
As an analytical approach to understanding the diversity and relationships of organisms, both present-day and extinct

5 Currently, systematists use
Morphological, biochemical, and molecular comparisons to infer evolutionary relationships Figure 25.2

6 Concept 25.1: Phylogenies are based on common ancestries inferred from fossil, morphological, and molecular evidence

7 The Fossil Record Sedimentary rocks Are the richest source of fossils
Are deposited into layers called strata 1 Rivers carry sediment to the ocean. Sedimentary rock layers containing fossils form on the ocean floor. 2 Over time, new strata are deposited, containing fossils from each time period. 3 As sea levels change and the seafloor is pushed upward, sedimentary rocks are exposed. Erosion reveals strata and fossils. Younger stratum with more recent fossils Older stratum with older fossils Figure 25.3

8 The fossil record Fossils reveal
Is based on the sequence in which fossils have accumulated in such strata Fossils reveal Ancestral characteristics that may have been lost over time

9 Though sedimentary fossils are the most common
Paleontologists study a wide variety of fossils Figure 25.4a–g (a) Dinosaur bones being excavated from sandstone (g) Tusks of a 23,000-year-old mammoth, frozen whole in Siberian ice (e) Boy standing in a 150-million-year-old dinosaur track in Colorado (d) Casts of ammonites, about 375 million years old (f) Insects preserved whole in amber (b) Petrified tree in Arizona, about 190 million years old (c) Leaf fossil, about 40 million years old

10 Morphological and Molecular Homologies
In addition to fossil organisms Phylogenetic history can be inferred from certain morphological and molecular similarities among living organisms In general, organisms that share very similar morphologies or similar DNA sequences Are likely to be more closely related than organisms with vastly different structures or sequences

11 Sorting Homology from Analogy
A potential misconception in constructing a phylogeny Is similarity due to convergent evolution, called analogy, rather than shared ancestry

12 Convergent evolution occurs when similar environmental pressures and natural selection
Produce similar (analogous) adaptations in organisms from different evolutionary lineages Figure 25.5

13 Concept 25.2: Phylogenetic systematics connects classification with evolutionary history
Taxonomy Is the ordered division of organisms into categories based on a set of characteristics used to assess similarities and differences

14 Binomial Nomenclature
Is the two-part format of the scientific name of an organism Was developed by Carolus Linnaeus

15 The binomial name of an organism or scientific epithet
Is latinized Is the genus and species

16 Hierarchical Classification
Linnaeus also introduced a system For grouping species in increasingly broad categories Panthera pardus Felidae Carnivora Mammalia Chordata Animalia Eukarya Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Figure 25.8

17 Linking Classification and Phylogeny
Systematists depict evolutionary relationships In branching phylogenetic trees Panthera pardus (leopard) Mephitis mephitis (striped skunk) Lutra lutra (European otter) Canis familiaris (domestic dog) Canis lupus (wolf) Panthera Mephitis Lutra Canis Felidae Mustelidae Canidae Carnivora Order Family Genus Species Figure 25.9

18 Each branch point Represents the divergence of two species Leopard
Domestic cat Common ancestor

19 “Deeper” branch points
Represent progressively greater amounts of divergence Leopard Domestic cat Common ancestor Wolf

20 A clade within a cladogram
Concept 25.3: Phylogenetic systematics informs the construction of phylogenetic trees based on shared characteristics A cladogram Is a depiction of patterns of shared characteristics among taxa A clade within a cladogram Is defined as a group of species that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants Cladistics Is the study of resemblances among clades

21 Cladistics Clades Can be nested within larger clades, but not all groupings or organisms qualify as clades

22 A valid clade is monophyletic
Signifying that it consists of the ancestor species and all its descendants (a) Monophyletic. In this tree, grouping 1, consisting of the seven species B–H, is a monophyletic group, or clade. A mono- phyletic group is made up of an ancestral species (species B in this case) and all of its descendant species. Only monophyletic groups qualify as legitimate taxa derived from cladistics. Grouping 1 D C E G F B A J I K H Figure 25.10a

23 A paraphyletic clade Is a grouping that consists of an ancestral species and some, but not all, of the descendants (b) Paraphyletic. Grouping 2 does not meet the cladistic criterion: It is paraphyletic, which means that it consists of an ancestor (A in this case) and some, but not all, of that ancestor’s descendants. (Grouping 2 includes the descendants I, J, and K, but excludes B–H, which also descended from A.) D C E B G H F J I K A Grouping 2 Figure 25.10b

24 A polyphyletic grouping
Includes numerous types of organisms that lack a common ancestor Grouping 3 (c) Polyphyletic. Grouping 3 also fails the cladistic test. It is polyphyletic, which means that it lacks the common ancestor of (A) the species in the group. Further- more, a valid taxon that includes the extant species G, H, J, and K would necessarily also contain D and E, which are also descended from A. D C B E G F H A J I K Figure 25.10c

25 Shared Primitive and Shared Derived Characteristics
In cladistic analysis Clades are defined by their evolutionary novelties

26 A shared primitive character
Is a homologous structure that predates the branching of a particular clade from other members of that clade Is shared beyond the taxon we are trying to define

27 A shared derived character
Is an evolutionary novelty unique to a particular clade

28 Systematists use a method called outgroup comparison
Outgroups Systematists use a method called outgroup comparison To differentiate between shared derived and shared primitive characteristics

29 As a basis of comparison we need to designate an outgroup
which is a species or group of species that is closely related to the ingroup, the various species we are studying Outgroup comparison Is based on the assumption that homologies present in both the outgroup and ingroup must be primitive characters that predate the divergence of both groups from a common ancestor

30 The outgroup comparison
Enables us to focus on just those characters that were derived at the various branch points in the evolution of a clade Salamander TAXA Turtle Leopard Tuna Lamprey Lancelet (outgroup) 1 Hair Amniotic (shelled) egg Four walking legs Hinged jaws Vertebral column (backbone) Amniotic egg Vertebral column (a) Character table. A 0 indicates that a character is absent; a 1 indicates that a character is present. (b) Cladogram. Analyzing the distribution of these derived characters can provide insight into vertebrate phylogeny. CHARACTERS Figure 25.11a, b

31 Phylogenetic Trees and Timing
Any chronology represented by the branching pattern of a phylogenetic tree Is relative rather than absolute in terms of representing the timing of divergences

32 Phylograms In a phylogram
The length of a branch in a cladogram reflects the number of genetic changes that have taken place in a particular DNA or RNA sequence in that lineage Drosophila Lancelet Amphibian Fish Bird Human Rat Mouse Figure 25.12

33 Ultrametric Trees In an ultrametric tree
The branching pattern is the same as in a phylogram, but all the branches that can be traced from the common ancestor to the present are of equal length Drosophila Lancelet Amphibian Fish Bird Human Rat Mouse Cenozoic Mesozoic Paleozoic Proterozoic 542 251 65.5 Millions of years ago Figure 25.13

34 Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood
Systematists Can never be sure of finding the single best tree in a large data set Narrow the possibilities by applying the principles of maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood

35 Comparing nucleic acids or other molecules to infer relatedness
Concept 25.4: Much of an organism’s evolutionary history is documented in its genome Comparing nucleic acids or other molecules to infer relatedness Is a valuable tool for tracing organisms’ evolutionary history

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