3 Distance vs. Displacement Distance: describes how far an object has moved, regardless of its directionex: 40km east km west = 65 total km traveledDisplacement: describes both distance and directionex: 40 km east km west = 15 km eastex: 40 km east km east = 65 km east
4 speed How fast an object is traveling regardless of direction Unit: m or kmsec hourDescribed in two ways:1. Instantaneous speed: measured at a specific instantinitial speed and final speed are examplesthis is what speedometers measure2. Average speed: total distance traveled per unit of timeif an object travels at a constant speed, then the instantaneous and average speed will be equalif the object is traveling at varying speeds, then the average speed is calculated as total distance traveled over total time
5 velocity Measured in two ways: Velocity can change if: Describes both the speed of an object AND its direction of motionUnits: speed + direction: 24 m northsecMeasured in two ways:1. Instantaneous velocity: velocity at a specific instant2. Average velocity: the total displacement per unit of timeVelocity can change if:1. the object’s speed is changed (increased or decreased)2. the object’s direction can change
6 v = d t The math… dun dun dun Units count!!!!!!!!!! V = either velocity or speedd = distance or displacementt = timeUnits count!!!!!!!!!!Let’s practice!!!!
7 Sample problem #1An elevator travels from the 1st to the 60th floor, a distance of 210 meters in 35 seconds.What is the elevator’s speed?
8 Sample problem #2How Far does a car travel in 1.5 hours if it is moving at a constant speed of 88 km/hr?
9 #1-5 from “Practice problems” worksheet Homework tonight!!!!Complete problems#1-5 from “Practice problems” worksheet
10 FLASHBACK What is the difference between distance and displacement? What is the difference between speed and velocity?Your average walking speed is 0.90 m/sec. What is it in km/hour?
11 Calculating the speed of a toy car… how fast can it go????
12 EOC WORKBOOK - pg. 48 [1,2,4,5] FLASHBACK Why do you think some people confuse speed with velocity?Does a speedometer show both speed and velocity?You travel to and from RHHS, which is located 5 mi to the west of your house. What is your distance & displacement?
13 acceleration and gravity PS 5.3 and PS 5.4accelerationand gravity
14 AccelerationThe rate of change of an object’s velocity over the time it takes for that change to occurEquation: a = (vf – vi)tUnit: m/s/s or m/s2 (most common)However, the unit used for velocity (m/s) and the unit used for time (s) do not necessarily need to be the same:km/hr per second
15 Can acceleration be negative??? The change in acceleration may involve a change in speed or directionCan acceleration be negative???Yes!!When you are slowing down at a stoplight, speed is decreasing, so acceleration is opposite of velocity... = negative acceleration
16 three ways to describe acceleration: 1. constant acceleration: acceleration is zerobecause the velocity does not changeex: walking 2 meters every 15 seconds2. positive acceleration: the object isspeeding upex: getting on the interstate in your car3. negative acceleration: the object isslowing downex: pulling into a parking lot to park your car
17 Gravity’s affect on acceleration All objects accelerate as they fall because the Earth exerts gravitational force on themAll objects when released accelerate in the direction of the force (downward)At initial release, the object has an initial velocity of 0.0 m/secAs it falls, the object accelerates at a constant rate of 9.8 m/s2This means the object will travel 9.8 m/sec every second it is falling as long as there is no air resistanceThe value 9.8 m/sec2 is called the acceleration of gravity (ag).
18 Positive Acceleration: (speeding up) Sample problem #1a = (vf – vi)tPositive Acceleration: (speeding up)A jet airliner starts at rest and reached a speed of 80 m/s in 20 seconds. What is it’s acceleration?
19 Negative Acceleration: (slowing down) Sample problem #2a = (vf – vi)tNegative Acceleration: (slowing down)A skateboarder is moving at a constant speed of 3 m/s and comes to a stop in 2 seconds. What is his acceleration?
22 FLASHBACK What needs to occur for an object to have acceleration? Which of the following is a proper unit of acceleration?m/km2 b. km/h c. m/s2 d. m2/s3. When describing the rate of a race car going around a track, should you use the term speed or velocity, why?4. How long does it take for the sound of thunder to travel 1485 m, if sound travels at 330 m/s?
23 FLASHBACK a. position b. time c. velocity d. force If you ride your bike down a straight road for 500 m then ride back, your distance is ____ your displacement.a. greater than b. less than c. equal to2. Acceleration is rate of change of ____.a. position b. time c. velocity d. force3. If you ride your bike up a hill, then ride down the other side, your acceleration is ____.a. all positive b. first positive, then negativec. all negative d. first negative, then positive
24 What changes when a tennis ball bounces??? Tennis Ball ActivityWhat changes when a tennis ball bounces???Draw and label for two bounces:Positive accelerationNegative accelerationIncreasing anddecreasing speed
25 FLASHBACK What is the value of 9.8 m/sec2 called… How long will it take to reach Bi-Lo 15 km away if traveling at 50 km/hr?2. How long will it take a whale to travel 200 km swimming 4 m/s?What is the value of 9.8 m/sec2 called…What is the formula for acceleration?
27 Newton’s 1st law of motion “The velocity of an object will remain constant unless a net force acts on it.”This is called the Law of Inertia.Inertia: is the tendency of an object to remain at rest or in motionInertia is dependent upon an object’s mass.Force: a push or pull that one object exerts on anotherIt is measured in Newtons (N).If one object has a greater force, then net force must be calculated
28 How does this relate to Newton’s First Law?????
29 Newton’s 2nd law of motion “When a net force acts on an object, it will accelerate in the direction of the net force”The larger the force, the greater the accelerationThe larger the mass, the smaller the rate of accelerationForce = Mass (acceleration)Friction and air resistance can affect net force; they act as opposing forces.
31 III. Newton’s Third LawNewton’s Third Law : When one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts a force on the first that is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.1. a swimmer pushes on the water, and the water pushes back2. a ball thrown on a wall, bounces off
34 I. The Math Behind the Force Force is a derived unit; it involves multiplying the mass of an object by its acceleration:F = mass * accelerationB. For us, the mass is measured in Kilograms (Kg) and the acceleration in m/sec2.C. This means the final answer (Force) is measured as Kg * m/sec2 or 1 NewtonD. 1 Newton is the amount of force required to accelerate a 1 Kg object at a rate of 1 m/sec2
35 E. Look at these examples: What is the force required to move a 2400Kg car with an acceleration of 4 m/sec2?If a force of 4.2 Newtons is applied to an object with a mass of 75 Kg, what is the rate of acceleration?
36 II. Newton’s Law of Gravitation States that there is a force of attraction between all objects in the universe.The object with the larger mass will exert the greater force. This is why objects weigh more on the earth than on the moon. The earth is larger so it has a greater force of attraction (gravity).We do not notice the forces between most objects on earth because the force of the earth is so much greater than the force between the two objects.
37 D. The amount of force the earth exerts on an object is dependent upon the object’s mass & distance. The greater the mass, the greater the gravitational force.E. Weight is a measure of an object’s gravitational force and it can be found using the formula:Fw = mass (acceleration of gravity)F. The acceleration of gravity is what?9.8 m/sec2
38 G. Try these examples:What is the weight of an object with a mass of 10 Kg?What is the mass of an object with a weight of 25 N?