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Civil War and Reconstruction Chapters 11/12. *Causes for: Secession –States rights –Fanaticism over slavery issue misconceptions about Lincoln –Econ/

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Presentation on theme: "Civil War and Reconstruction Chapters 11/12. *Causes for: Secession –States rights –Fanaticism over slavery issue misconceptions about Lincoln –Econ/"— Presentation transcript:

1 Civil War and Reconstruction Chapters 11/12

2 *Causes for: Secession –States rights –Fanaticism over slavery issue misconceptions about Lincoln –Econ/ Cultural Sectionalism War –7–7 –Fort Sumter

3 *ID States Border –MD –DEL –KY –Missouri –W Va Confederacy –SC 12/60 –Miss 1/61 –FL –Ala –GA 2/61 –LA –TEX Confederacy formed- 2/61 –VA 4/61 –ARK, TENN, NC 5/61 Union Kansas Calif. Oregon

4 *ID:Adv/ Disadv of N/S Categories –Population –Geography –Agriculture –Industry –Transportation –Foreign Trade –Finances –Diplomacy –Military Leadership Army Navy

5 *Explain Early Strategies North blockade Control the Mississippi River / split the Confederacy Capture Richmond –South –Maintain military effort over time –Threaten the north with invasion –Avoid defeat –Gain foreign support


7 *ID Military Phases: Early defeat61-62 –Shock –stalemate Turning Point –July 1863 –Grant in the West-Vicksburg –Gettysburg War of Attrition 64 / 65 –Grant vs. Lee –Sherman Turning Point

8 * the shock and reality of this war The Bull Run picnic Weapons Technology Offsetting strengths and weaknesses

9 *ID Major Battles Bull Run 7/61 C Forts Henry / Donelson 2/62 U Shiloh3/62 U Peninsula Campaign 3/62 C New Orleans 4/62 U 7 Days Battle 6/62 C Bull Run 2 8/62 C Antietam* 9/62 ---- Fredricksburg 12/62 C Chancellorsville 5/63 C Gettysburg *7/63 U Vicksburg 7/63 U

10 11.4 *ID military turning points for the Union July 1863 Vicksburg Gettysburg -Siege -3 days - Lee ignores his own -control of Miss R strategy - D1- Seminary Ridge -Grant D2- Little Round Top D3- Cemetary Ridge ID Theme/ Setting of Gettysburg Address - dedication of cemetery and cause - Nov. 19 1863 READ IT !!!!!!!

11 11.4 *How did Sherman and Grant impact the war? *** their tactics got Lincoln re-elected and won the war for the union Total War - Sherman War of Attrition - Grant The Wilderness - Cold Harbor, Spotsylvania, Petersburg Siege The March to the Sea - Tenn, Ga, SC, NC

12 Timeline for EP 9/1862 – Antietam, initial announcement 1/1863 – EP issued 7/1863 – Vicksburg and Gettysburg 11 / 1863 – Gettysburg Address

13 11.2 Describe the importance of the Emancipation Proclamation 9/62 decision after Antietam; in effect 1/1/63 declared slaves in the rebellious confederate states to be free –to be liberated by US troops under ALs command not in the border states ! – not in US controlled territory ! – LAWS would be needed for that has a symbolic purpose: it ennobles the war effort with a cause –becomes a crusade would discourage foreign support for the south Lincoln and the north became Liberators encourages freed slave support

14 11.2 / 11.3 * The Wars impact on Life and Politics Foreign aid – GB war failures –ALs political popularity border states Internal Dissent –Habeas Corpus –Copperheads –Conscription Riots –Union military defeats McClellan

15 11.2 / 11.3 ….there were other issues…. things happening – the civil war did not put a stop to other issues / problems for AL ***AL v. OBAMA ????? Native American relations Expansion west - RRs - the Homestead Act - bank reform *** political leadership –advantage: NORTH

16 11.5 *Results of the Civil War Political Secession is not an option War powers of the president expanded Reconstruction of the govt and the country Lincolns assassination CW Amendments 13,14,15 Federal Govt is supreme ; states rights concept is limited Econ N / S Migration of people Sharecropping Soc Costs -rebuilding -lives - $$$$ Abolition Jim Crow & The Segregated South est.

17 12.1 *ID the Provisions of Each of the Reconstruction Plans Lincolns (12/1863) –Never seceded/ individual –Pardon power –Lenient Loyalty oath 10% Congress Wade-Davis Bill (7/1864) –(pocket veto) Johnsons (5/1865) –used pardon –Loyalty oath –Accepted southern states back who: Disowned secession Repudiated Confed. debts Ratified 13 th A Conf. was conquered territory 51 % -Loyalty oath Congress would readmit - not the Pres. Deterrence Prevent state Black Codes Provide aid – passed the Freedmans Bureau Act

18 *How did Congress respond to AJ? Describe AJ State re-enter under AJs plan 12 / 65 Feb / 1866 - Refused to seat southern reps. Resented new southern state govts Wade- Davis Bill (64) –Radicals Charles Sumner (S) Thaddeus Stevens (H) RADICAL REPUBLICANS: against A Johnson Infringing on the powers of Congress Too lenient Threat to Republican control Abandon the blacks to state govts

19 ????????????? Whose car wash are the southern states gonna have to go thru ????????

20 AJs future actions would push moderate Reps to the Radicals The Republicans in Congress want: To renew the FBA To pass the CRA drafted the 14 th amendment A Johnson fights against these measures and revokes Shermans orders (40 acres..) * midterm elections of 1866 - Johnson campaigns against: the Republicans, the FBA, the CRA and the 14 th A

21 Why were the mid-term elections of 1866 important? Nov. 1866 AJ campaigns against radical republican program > CRA,FBA,14 th A Results of the midterm elections: - republican majorities in S and H of R--- radicals begin to implement their reconstruction program: CRA,FBA,14 th A, the Reconstruction Act (1867) - veto proof majority for republicans – AJs vetoes would be met with overrides - impeachment attack on AJ begins with Congress passing the Tenure of Office Act (1867)

22 Describe the Radical Plan Congress control; purge and deter FBA ; CRA passed 1866 14 th A is drafted Reconstruction Act – 1867 - 5 military districts - conditions for troop removal: new elections; new state constitutions; ratify CW amendments want to Impeach Johnson – THEY SET A TRAP: -Tenure of Office Act

23 12.2 * Summarize the Souths Economic Problems Loss of wealthy, state revenue Labor shortage Wide spread debt Landlessness King Cotton is dead Responses – prod., taxes diversify –Sharecropping Crop lein –Land redistribution

24 *ID Political Problems in the South Conflicting goals among Rep.s in the south - scalawags - recruiting democrats into rep. govts Racism / discriminating state laws (Black Codes) Need to rebuild infrastructure Mistrust, opportunism Responses Radical Rep. legislation Public works

25 *ID Social Problems White Denial Separation / Segregation Literacy Racism, white violence Responses A/A Activity - Republican party - Churches Migration

26 StateReadmitted Texas1870 Ark1868 LA1868 Miss1870 Ala1868 TN1866 GA1870 FLA1868 SC1868 NC1868 VA1870

27 12.3 *Describe the Radically Reconstructed Southern State Govts The Negatives: Corruption supported by presence of federal troops Carpetbag Govts : - spending, taxation, debt - resented (scalawag, carpetbaggers) and undermined by southern whites - Freedman rights policed by military increased resentment

28 The Positives Reformed state constitutions,more liberal Removed voting qualifications, and office holding qualifications Encouraged Freedman participation at the state and national level Abolished debt imprisonment Est. free public schools Economic rebuilding

29 Major Acts of Congress for Radical Reconstruction Freedmans Bureau Civil Rights of 1866 13, 14, 15 Amendments Reconstruction Act 1867 Enforcement Act 1870 Civil Rights Act Of 1875

30 12.3 *Explain the collapse of the Radical Republican govts in the south Grant Scandals –72 Election split Southern Resistance –Grant not aggressive Bank Panic 1873, Depression Death of Radicals Amnesty Act 1872 Freedmans Bureau expired Restrictive SC decisions Racism - violence / KKK 1876 Pres. election compromise

31 StateReadmittedRedeemed Texas18701874 Ark18681874 LA18681877 Miss18701876 Ala18681874 TN18661869 GA18701871 FLA18681877 SC18681876 NC18681870 VA1870

32 12.3 *ID Legacy of Reconstruction State Segregation Laws installed in the name of States Rights Southern resentment : - racism - violence 14 th Amendment The Modern Civil Rights Movement

33 12. Reconstruction Storyline Timeline Handout A side B side

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