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FLASHBACK How many electrons do all atoms want in their outer shell?

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Presentation on theme: "FLASHBACK How many electrons do all atoms want in their outer shell?"— Presentation transcript:

1 FLASHBACK How many electrons do all atoms want in their outer shell?
How do these atoms get those e-’s in the outer shell? How can you tell how many valence e-’s an atom has? If atoms gain e-’s, they become ____________ charged. If atoms lose e-’s, they become ____________ charged.

2 Chemical Reactions!! Unit 4 Ch. 20/21 3/28/2017 2:42 AM
© 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

3 Chemical bonds: the attractive force that holds atoms or ions together
Chemical Vocab!! Chemical bonds: the attractive force that holds atoms or ions together

4 Why do atoms bond? To increase stability of the atoms Group 1 and 2 metals transfer electrons to Group 16 and 17 nonmetals to create ionic bonds. Metals lose electrons & nonmetals gain electrons to achieve noble gas structure!

5 Calcium ion will give up its outer electrons to both chlorine atoms
bonding A bond forms when… two atoms gain, lose, or share electrons in their outer energy levels. -1 -1 Cl Cl CaCl2 +2 Ca Calcium ion will give up its outer electrons to both chlorine atoms

6 Ionic bond Form between two oppositely charged ions (metal to nonmetal) one gains and one loses electrons (electron transfer) Br Br +2 MgBr2 Mg Strong bonds form

7 Ionic vs. Covalent Video
covalent bond Form when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons = nonmetals to nonmetals Oxygen only needs two electrons so hydrogen shares its one valence electron so that both atoms fill their outer shells. O H H2O H Ionic vs. Covalent Video Weaker bonds form

8 Electron dot Diagrams Shows only valence
electrons of atom with dots around the element's symbol What’s the point?

9 Electron dot diagrams P=1 H 1 e- N=0 Ca P=20 2 e- 8 e- 8 e- 2 e- N=20

10 Electron dot diagrams Determine # of valence electrons
Correctly place the electrons around symbol Nitrogen: N Strontium: Sr Water: H2O

11 FLASHBACK 1. What types of elements occupy space in groups 1 and 2?
2. How many valence e-’s do these groups have, respectively? 3. What will their ionic charges be, respectively, if they lose their valence e-’s? 4. Metals will _____________ e-’s. 5. Non-metals will ________________ e-’s. 6. What e-’s do the bonding? 7. Explain difference between ionic and covalent bonds.

12 Bonding Worksheet: 4. Na Cl 7. Be Ne 11. Mg Covalent or ionic bond? 12. HCl_________________________ 14. AlO3________________________ Using electron dot diagrams, draw the ionic bonds… 17. NaCl

13 Investigating the difference between sugar and salt!
Lab time! Ionic vs. covalent... Which will win??? Investigating the difference between sugar and salt! Sugar! Salt!

14 Who knew Chemical Bonding could be so cool????
Bonding Rap… Who knew Chemical Bonding could be so cool???? Want to give it a try??? Extra Credit by the end of the 9 weeks (March 23th) for a Chemistry Rap Video!

15 Bonds Covalent Structures: make molecules and SHARE ELECTRONS
Example: H20, CO2, C12H22O11 same charges, so no strong attraction Ionic Structures: make ionic crystals and TRANSFER ELECTRONS Example: NaCl, KI, CaF2 + and – charges make a STRONG attraction!

16 IONIC Structure When positive and negative ions surround each other, they form tightly packed structures called ionic crystals or crystal lattices Substances with network (ionic) structures are usually strong solids with high melting and boiling points Substances made of molecules have lower melting and boiling points

17 Electron dot Diagrams What happens if it is not the neutral element.. But the ion?? e- diagram lose or gain e-? new (ion) e- diagram Na Cl Mg

18 SECTION 1 REVIEW Pg. 606 # 4, 5 CHAPTER REVIEW Pg. 626 # 4-6, 11, 14, 17, 18

19 1. Which of the substances has the lower melting point (which melted faster)? Was this what you expected? Why or why not? 2. Relate your results to ionic and covalent bonding. 3. On a molecular level, how do the bonds in sugar and salt differ? 4. Why do atoms bond? 5. Water (H2O) contains a(n) _________________ bond. Calcium oxide (CaO) contains a(n) ________________ bond.

20 EOC WORKBOOK!!! Pg. 38 (all) Pg. 39 (all) Pg. 36 (all) Pg. 37 (all)
FLASHBACK EOC WORKBOOK!!! Pg. 38 (all) Pg. 39 (all) Pg. 36 (all) Pg. 37 (all)

21 FLASHBACK 1. Table salt (NaCl) has what kind of bond?
2. Table sugar (sucrose, C12H22O11) has what kind of bond? 3. When heated, what happened to the bonds in sugar? 4. When heated, what happened to the bonds in salt? 5. Provide the electron dot structure for Barium (Ba), Iodine (I), and Cesium (Cs).

22 Review of Terms! Cation: positively charged ion
- Non metals or metals? Anion: negatively charged ion

23 Chemical Formula Terms
1. Symbol: element being used 2. Subscript: shows how many of the individual atoms are present ex. O2 CO HBr 3. Coefficient Number: placed before the element or compound, distributed to entire compound ex. 2HBr or 2H2 + O2  2H2O 4. Oxidation Number: same as “charge”, how many electrons atoms need to gain or lose (to become stable) **get off of periodic table!! **write them on your P.T. (Al = +3)

24 Chemical Formulas The chemical symbols and numbers indicating the number of atoms contained in the basic unit of a substance Carbon = 6 atoms C6H12O6 Hydrogen = 12 atoms Oxygen = 6 atoms How many atoms of each element are present in 3 molecules of glucose? 3 C6H12O6 C= H= O=18

25 Writing Ionic Formulas
The elements overall charges have to equal zero Compounds have no net charge!! Write the cation first with its charge, then the anion and its charge. Al+3 F-1 Write the chemical formula, using subscripts to indicate how many of each ion are needed to make a neutral compound. criss-cross method: Al+3 F-1 = AlF3

26 More compounds!! Balance the formula so the compound formed has a neutral charge Examples: Ca Br –1 Na S –2 Al Cl-1

27 Compound Names and Formulas

28 Naming ionic compounds
Ionic compounds are formed by the strong attractions between cations and anions. Both ions are important to the compound’s structure, so it makes sense that both ions are included in the name Name cation first (metal) Name anion (nonmetal) 3. Drop the end of the anion & add suffix –ide EXAMPLE: NaCl = sodium chloride

29 More naming practice cation anion Balance formula Compound name
Cs+1,cesium F-1,fluorine Ba+2, barium Cl-1,chlorine Al+3, aluminum S-2, sulfur Cesium Fluoride CsF Barium chloride BaCl2 Aluminum sulfide Al2S3

30 Naming covalent compounds
Uses prefixes!!!! Number of atoms prefix 1 Mono- 2 Di- 3 Tri- 4 Tetra- 5 Penta- 6 Hexa- 7 Hepta- 8 Octa- 9 Nona- 10 Deca- If there is only one atom of the first element, it does not get a prefix EX: BF3= boron trifluoride Dihydrogen monoxide = ????

31 Dihydrogen Monoxide!!!!!!!! Why????

32 Drinking, bathing, washing, swimming…
Chemistry Joke! If H20 is water, what is H204?  Drinking, bathing, washing, swimming… All kinds of things!

33 The name Game What’s in a name???
How many people can you “bond” with!?  You must turn in to me a piece of paper with… Your element and it’s oxidation number A total of 6 IONIC COMPOUND formulas AND the name of those compounds My Ion What I am bonding with Chemical Formula Name Fe+2 O-2 FeO Iron Oxide

34 Try these covalent molecules…
Carbon monoxide CO CO2 N5H8 TeBr2 Si3S7 Carbon dioxide Pentanitrogen octahydride Tellurium dibromide Trisilicon heptasulfide

35 FLASHBACK 1. How many oxygen atoms are there in bleach, NaClO, AKA sodium hypochlorite? 2. Acetone (CH3COCH3), or nail polish remover, has how many total hydrogen atoms? 3. How do you determine oxidation #’s? 4. What is the oxidation # of Al, O, & Cl ? 5. Write ionic formulas: (find charges 1st then criss-cross!!) Mg + F Be + N 6. Name the following compounds: N5H SrCl2

36 More naming practice COVALENT: NO NO2 N2O IONIC: NaF ZnCl CaCl2

37 H O H O H Electron diagrams
1. Electron Dot Diagram: 2. Pictorial Diagrams: Hydrogen: H Oxygen: Water: H2O H O H O Covalent bonds! H

38 and Chemical Reactions
Chemical Changes and Chemical Reactions

39 Physical Changes Occur when the size or shape of the substance is changed Occasionally, the color can change, too Regardless, the original substance(s) do not change Evidences of Physical Changes: - Bending, stretching, heat, and cooling can all cause a physical change ***All phase changes are physical changes

40 Chemical changes Occurs when there is a change in the arrangement of atoms so that a different substance with different properties is produced Very often, there is some kind of evidence (for example, the formation of a gas)

41 Evidence of a chemical change
Formation of a gas Reaction with acids (like this picture of copper reacting with nitric acid) (Sometimes) a color change can indicate a chemical change. - A good example of this is metal tarnishing Is a neutralization reaction a chemical change?

42 Evidence of chemical REACTIONs
Bubbles/fizzing/formation of a gas Precipitate formed Energy change Color change Odor…

43 If you're not part of the solution… You're part of the precipitate!
Chemistry Joke! If you're not part of the solution… You're part of the precipitate!

44 FLASHBACK 1. What is the main difference between a chemical and physical change? 2. If a reaction forms a gas, you know it is a ______________ change. 3. If something changes color, you know it’s a chemical change. True False 4. Name the four evidences of a chemical rxn. 5. Explain a situation in which bubbling occurs, but it is NOT a chemical change.

45 Why do you burp after drinking a Coke?

46 Excuse me… Coke and other soft drinks are carbonated
Carbonation occurs when carbon dioxide is dissolved in water or solution This gives the "fizz" to carbonated beverages Excess gas needs out of the stomach.. So we burp!

47 Using the materials provided: 1. 2 pieces of Alka-Seltzer
Rocket Lab Time!! Using the materials provided: 1. 2 pieces of Alka-Seltzer 2. 1 film canister 3. Water …you are to build a projectile!

48 Use an “If-Then” statement!
Hypothesizing Pick ONE question to answer and generate a hypothesis and WRITE IT DOWN… Use an “If-Then” statement! 1. How does changing the volume of water effect the time/height of rocket “launch”? 2. How does changing the amount of Alka-Seltzer effect the time/height of rocket “launch”?

49 You are to write a brief lab report on your experience…
- Skip lines between headings - Full sentences! Alka seltzer Title Hypothesis: (your question) Data: Table? List? Conclusion: tell me what you learned (in paragraph form!) 1. What evidence did you see of a chemical reaction taking place? How does this relate to the lab? 2. Refer back to your hypothesis… was it right or wrong?? Why?? 3. What would have done differently… or how would you make this lab better?

An exothermic reaction __________________ heat. An endothermic reaction __________________ heat. ( A + B  AB ) is an example of a _____________ reaction

51 Naming: 2) P2O5 ___________________________ 3) Mg3N ___________________________ 5) SiO2 ____________________________ 6) BaCl2 _______________________________ 8) B2P9 _____________________________________ Formulas: 14) aluminum nitride ____________________ 16) disulfur pentaphosphide ____________________ 17) potassium sulfide __________________________ 18) rubidium iodide ____________________________ 20) hexacarbon dichloride ______________________

52 Chemical Reactions and Equations:
What do they mean? What do they show?

53 Energy changes in reactions
During any chemical reaction, there is an energy change. 1. Exothermic reaction: heat is released during the reaction, gets hot! 2. Endothermic reaction: heat is absorbed during the reaction, gets cold!

54 Everyday Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions
The airbag's inflation system reacts sodium azide (NaN3) with potassium nitrate (KNO3) to produce nitrogen gas. Hot blasts of the nitrogen inflate the airbag.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Instant Cold Packs Instant heat packs AIRBAGS! The airbag's inflation system reacts sodium azide (NaN3) with potassium nitrate (KNO3) to produce nitrogen gas. Hot blasts of the nitrogen inflate the airbag.

55 Videos Exothermic vs. Endothermic Endothermic Reaction

56 Reactants  Products Equation Terms
A. Reactants: original substances entering a chemical rxn - what you started with, on the left side B. Products: resulting substances - what you end with, on the right side Reactants  Products

57 Endothermic vs. Exothermic Calcium Chloride vs
Endothermic vs. Exothermic Calcium Chloride vs. Sodium Bicarbonate… who will win the temperature war??? Turn into me: Half sheet of paper

58 Classifying reactions
1. Synthesis: 2 substances combine to form 1 substance A + B -> AB 2. Decomposition: 1 substance breaks down (decomposes) to 2 substances AB -> A + B (opposite of synthesis) 3. Single Displacement: 1 element replaces another A + BC -> AC + B 4. Double Displacement: positive ion of one compound replaces positive ion of another AB + CD -> AD + CB

59 Name that equation! Synthesis Decomposition Synthesis
4Al + 3O2 --> 2Al2O3 Ca(OH)2 --> CaO + H2O Zn + CuSO4 --> ZnSO4 + Cu Cl2 + 2KBr --> 2KCl + Br2 BaCl2 + Na2SO4 --> 2NaCl + BaSO4 2H2 + O2 --> 2H2O Decomposition Single Displacement Single Displacement Double Displacement Synthesis

60 FLASHBACK Label the following equations: (4types)
Zn + HCl  ZnCl2 + H2 2. Fe + O2  Fe2O3 3. SiO2 + HF  SiF4 + H2O 4. FeS + HCl  H2S + FeCl2 5. In lab yesterday, what gas produced the signature “popping” sound? Single Displacement Synthesis Double Displacement Double Displacement

61 Common Gas Lab! A. NaHCO3 + HCl  NaCl + H20 + ______ CO2
You will be conducting reactions to produce 5 different common gases and observe their chemical and physical properties. A. NaHCO3 + HCl  NaCl + H20 + ______ B. Cu + 4HNO3  Cu(NO3)2 + 2H _____ C. NH4Cl + NaOH  NaCl + H20 + ______ D. 2H2O2  2H2O + ____ E. Mg + 2HCl  MgCl2 + ____ CO2 NO2 NH3 O2 H2

62 Section Review Pg. 645 #1, 3 EOC REVIEW Pg. 656 #1-5, 11, 15
FLASHBACK Section Review Pg. 645 #1, 3 EOC REVIEW Pg. 656 #1-5, 11, 15


64 Balancing Chemical Equations

65 Chemical Reactions Chemical reaction - is the process of changing reactants to products by a chemical change Chemical reactions are symbolized by Reactants Products (s) solid; (l) liquid; (g) gas; (aq) aqueous are the physical states of the reactants and products

66 Equations show… The reactants which enter into a reaction.
The products which are formed by the reaction. The amounts of each substance used and each substance produced. ___Mg(s) + __ O2(g)  __ MgO(s) 2 2

67 Subscripts and coefficients
We use subscripts to balance compounds CaCl2 subscripts cannot be changed We use coefficients to balance equations 2 NaCl + _ Ca(OH)2  2 NaOH + __ CaCl2

68 Balancing equations! Goal: to get the same number of atoms on both sides of the equation __ Al + __ O2  ___ Al2O3 __ NaCl  __ Na + __ Cl2 __ Li + __ H2O  __ LiOH + __ H2

69 What’s the point????? A balanced chemical equation represents the process of a chemical reaction in which atoms are rearranged but not created or destroyed. By balancing chemical equations, you show that mass is conserved… Law of Conservation of Mass!

70 Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass is neither created nor destroyed in an ordinary chemical or physical reaction Mass of Reactants = Mass of Products

71 LAB: Looking at the… Law of Conservation of mass!!!

72 FLASHBACK Balance the following equations:
___Zn + ___HCl  ___ZnCl2 + ___H2 2. ___Fe + ___O2  ___Fe2O3 3. ___SiO2 + ___HF  ___SiF4 + ___H2O 4. ___FeS + ___HCl  ___H2S + ___FeCl2 5.What is the overall goal of balancing equations?

73 FLASHBACK 1. __S8 + __O2  __SO2 2. __ HgO  __Hg + __ O2
Balance the following equations: 3. __BeCl2 + __KOH  __Be(OH)2 +__KCl 4. __S8 + __ O2  __ SO3 5. __H3PO4 + __Mg(OH)2 __Mg3(PO4)2 + __H2O 1. __S __O  __SO2 2. __ HgO  __Hg + __ O2

74 Reactions occur when particles of reactants collide with energy
Reaction Rates! Reactions occur when particles of reactants collide with energy

75 Factors affecting reaction rates
Temperature: higher temperature, reaction rate increases Particles moving faster, more collision between particles Concentration: when reactants are more concentrated, rate of reaction increases More particles mean more collisions

76 Factors affecting reaction rates [Inhibitor: slows down a reaction]
3. Surface Area: more surface area, reaction rate increases 4. Catalyst: presence of catalyst speeds up reaction without being permanently changed [Inhibitor: slows down a reaction] Video!

77 Thursday 10/22 - Bellringer
EOC WORKBOOK Pg. 45 [# 2-6] Pg. 46 [# 1-6]

78 Salt: Up close and personal
Make some observations of salt under a microscope!!

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