Presentation on theme: "What is Culture? __________ - Rules that guide our behavior. Includes a society’s ____________, history, knowledge, ____________, customs, moral principles,"— Presentation transcript:
What is Culture? __________ - Rules that guide our behavior. Includes a society’s ____________, history, knowledge, ____________, customs, moral principles, and _________. Culture is not ______________ - for example, all people in all societies use fire, but no one argues that the knowledge of how to use fire is inherited.
Culture and Society True or False - Culture = Society Society – large number of __________ who: 1. Live in the same _________. 2. See themselves as separate and different from people outside their ______________. 3. Participate in a common culture. A society consists of social interactions among people who think of themselves as ___________.
Cultural Traits Smallest unit of a culture. Cultural Trait – single object, action, or belief. Examples: Wedding Ring, handshake, the belief that washing one’s hands helps prevent the spread of germs. Cultural traits usually combine to form culture __________________. Culture Complex – set of interrelated traits. Example: All people eat, and may cultural traits surround this action.
Material & Nonmaterial Cultures Material Culture – refers to the set of concrete ___________ created or used by the people of a culture. Single objects of the material culture are called ____________. Nonmaterial Culture – is composed of abstract human ______________. The two categories are intertwined. Example: Car Real versus Ideal Culture: Real = ___________ and Ideal = what we _________ do.
Key Elements of Culture All cultures consist of the same key elements: 1.Values – collection of what is considered good, desirable, and proper in a culture. 2.Norms – are the guidelines people follow in their relation with one another. Norms are divided into ____ categories according to strictness of enforcement. i. Folkways – everyday habits and conventions that people obey without giving them much thought. Ex. Replying to invitations. ii. Mores – norms that have powerful moral significance attached to them. Ex. Incest, murder, stealing.
Key Elements of Culture A society enforces norms with laws and sanctions. Laws – written __________ of conduct that are enacted and enforced by __________________. May formalize folkways (no littering) or may relate to major mores (against murder). Sanctions – _____________ or punishments. Two types: Informal and Formal. Informal sanctions – given by individuals or groups. Examples: Employee of the week (positive), being grounded by a parent (negative). Formal sanctions – given by organizations or bodies, such as governments, police, schools. Examples: fines for traffic violations (negative), medals for athletic performance (positive).
Key Elements of Culture 3.Symbols – are commonly understood gestures, _________, sounds, _____________, colors, or designs that have come to stand for something else. Can be divided into two categories: 1. Language – organization of written or spoken _______________ into a standardized system with rules for putting symbols together. 2. Signs – are _____________. Can communicate across languages. 4.Knowledge – attempts to define what exists, or the reality of the world. 5.Beliefs – theories and ideas about the nature of the physical and social world. Not all beliefs can be proven. Sociologists are interested in how people decide what to count as knowledge and what to count as beliefs.