Presentation on theme: "The Scientific Method in Psychology. Descriptive Studies: naturalistic observations; case studies. Individuals observed in their environment. Correlational."— Presentation transcript:
Descriptive Studies: naturalistic observations; case studies. Individuals observed in their environment. Correlational Studies: establishing correlations between non-manipulated variables. Relationships are not necessarily causal. Experiments: Manipulating variables and testing cause and effect relationships. Three Types of Studies
Theory: System of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations. Hypothesis: a specific prediction derived from theory. Designing experiments to test hypotheses and theory. The best way to advance knowledge is to attempt disproving a theory or hypothesis. Alternative: design single experiment to test several contradictory hypotheses. Theory Construction and Philosophy of Science
The Scientific Method Identify Problem and Formulate hypothesis Design experiment using dependent and independent variables. Perform experiment using experimental and control groups. Evaluate hypothesis Communicate results
Identifying the Problem Have a good idea Formulate Hypothesis One theory (several testable hypotheses) Uses naturalistic observations
Designing the Experiment Dependent vs. Independent variables (IV changes or is manipulated) Experimental vs. Control group (Control group is not experimented, used only to compare results) Validity
Performing the Experiment Reliability of measurements Selecting the subjects Exclude bias Choose selection at random for best results. Assign experimental (receive treatment) and control groups (do not receive treatment).
Measure and Analyze Measure and compare experimental and control groups. Analyze data and draw conclusions from the analysis. Record and/or publish your findings.
Correlational studies: do not necessarily indicate a cause and effect relationship Case studies: Examples, but does not necessarily represent the entire population. Surveys: Subject to bias and misinterpretation. Generalities: Generalization from a selected sample. Other Factors