2 Non-Communicable Diseases Disease that is not transmitted by another person, a vector, or the environmentCardiovascular Disease is one of the most common and preventable diseases
3 Cancer Uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells More than 100 typesOccurs because of DNA damageA buildup can cause a tumorAbnormal mass of tissue that has no natural role in the body2 types: benign and malignantBenign grows slowly and is noncancerous but could interfere with normal body functionsMalignant spreads to other tissues and is cancerousMetastasisMalignant tumors spread throughout the body, divide, and form new tumors
5 Types of Cancer Lymphomas – affect immune system Leukemias – affect blood-forming organsCarcinomas – affect glands and body liningsincluding skinSarcomas – affect connective tissues
6 Risk Factors for Cancer Exposure to carcinogens (cancer-causing substance)Tobacco and UV light are most commonTobacco and tobacco smoke contain at least 43 different carcinogens215,000 new cases of lung cancer related to smoking are diagnosed each yearRadiation (UV light)Skin that is tanned is your skin’s reaction to damage from the UV light
7 Risk Factors for Cancer STD’sHuman Papillomavirus (HPV) can cause cervical cancerHepatitis B can cause liver cancerDietary FactorsHigh fat, low fiber diets often linked with colon, breast, and prostate cancersHeredityFamily history can determine if you are at a higher risk
8 Treatments for Cancer Surgery to remove cancerous masses Radiation therapy uses radioactive substances to kill cancer cells and shrink cancerous massesChemotherapy uses chemicals to destroy cancer cellsImmunotherapy activates a person’s immune system to recognize specific cancers and destroy themHormone therapy uses medicines to interfere with the production of certain hormones that facilitate cancer growth.
9 DiabetesType 1 and Type 2A chronic disease that affects the way body cells convert sugar into energyPancreas produces too little or no insulinInsulin helps glucose enter body cellsType 1 accounts for 5 – 10% of all diabetes casesBody fails to produce insulin and glucose builds up in the bloodCells begin attacking and destroying cells in the pancreas that produce insulinDaily doses of insulin are required through injections or a specially attached pump
10 Diabetes Type 2 accounts for 90-95% of all cases Usually appears in adults over age 40Disease is developing in younger adults, teens, and childrenBody is unable to use insulin properly or is not making enoughLow-fat, low-calorie foods rich in protein and limited in carbohydrates and regular physical activity help manage diabetes