# Thermal Energy. How does thermal energy work? Important terms to know:  Temperature:

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Thermal Energy

How does thermal energy work?

Important terms to know:  Temperature:

Important terms to know:  Temperature: A measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual particles in matter.

Important terms to know:  Temperature: A measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual particles in matter. Low temperatures = low kinetic energy

Important terms to know:  Temperature: A measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual particles in matter. Low temperatures = low kinetic energy High temperatures = high kinetic energy

Important terms to know:  Temperature: continued Thermometers: As the liquid in the thermometer heats up its volume increases (rises) and as it cools off its volume goes down (drops).

Important terms to know:  Temperature: continued Scales: The three common scales are Fahrenheit, Celsius, and the Kelvin scales.

Important terms to know:  Temperature: continued Scales: The three common scales are Fahrenheit, Celsius, and the Kelvin scales.  Fahrenheit: Used in the United States.

Important terms to know:  Temperature: continued Scales: The three common scales are Fahrenheit, Celsius, and the Kelvin scales.  Fahrenheit: Used in the United States.  Celsius: Used nearly everywhere else.

Important terms to know:  Temperature: continued Scales: The three common scales are Fahrenheit, Celsius, and the Kelvin scales.  Fahrenheit: Used in the United States.  Celsius: Used nearly everywhere else.  Kelvin: Commonly used in the physical sciences.

Important terms to know:  Temperature: continued Conversions:

Important terms to know:  Temperature: continued Conversions: °K = °C + 273

Important terms to know:  Temperature: continued Conversions: °K = °C + 273 °C = °K - 273

Important terms to know:  Temperature: continued Conversions: °K = °C + 273 °C = °K - 273 °C = 5/9(°F – 32)

Important terms to know:  Temperature: continued Conversions: °K = °C + 273 °C = °K - 273 °C = 5/9(°F – 32) °F = 9/5°C + 32

Thermal Energy:  Thermal Energy depends on:

Thermal Energy:  Thermal Energy depends on: the number of particles an object has.

Thermal Energy:  Thermal Energy depends on: the number of particles an object has. the temperature of an object.

Thermal Energy:  Thermal Energy depends on: the number of particles an object has. the temperature of an object. the arrangement of the object’s particles.

Thermal Energy:  Thermal Energy depends on: the number of particles an object has. the temperature of an object. the arrangement of the object’s particles.  Heat:

Thermal Energy:  Thermal Energy depends on: the number of particles an object has. the temperature of an object. the arrangement of the object’s particles.  Heat: Thermal energy that moves from a warmer object to a cooler object.

Thermal Energy:  Thermal Energy depends on: the number of particles an object has. the temperature of an object. the arrangement of the object’s particles.  Heat: Thermal energy that moves from a warmer object to a cooler object. Thermal energy only becomes heat when it is transferred.

Thermal Energy:  Thermal Energy depends on: the number of particles an object has. the temperature of an object. the arrangement of the object’s particles.  Heat: Thermal energy that moves from a warmer object to a cooler object. Thermal energy only becomes heat when it is transferred. It’s unit of measure is “Joules”.

Thermal Energy:  Specific Heat:

Thermal Energy:  Specific Heat: The amount of energy required to raise 1 g of a material by 1 °C.

Thermal Energy:  Specific Heat: The amount of energy required to raise 1 g of a material by 1 °C.  Measured in joules per kilogram-Celsius

Thermal Energy:  Specific Heat: The amount of energy required to raise 1 g of a material by 1 °C.  Measured in joules per kilogram-Kelvin J/(kg*C)

Thermal Energy:  Common specific heats: Aluminum:903 J/(kg*C) Copper385 Glass837 Ice2,060 Iron450 Sand800 Water4,180

Heat Transfer:  Heat is transferred by three different methods.

Heat Transfer:  Heat is transferred by three different methods. Conduction: The transfer of heat without the movement of matter.

Heat Transfer:  Heat is transferred by three different methods. Conduction: The transfer of heat without the movement of matter.  A metal spoon in a pan of hot water (the spoon gets hot over time).

Heat Transfer:  Heat is transferred by three different methods. Convection: The transfer of heat by the movement of currents within a fluid.

Heat Transfer:  Heat is transferred by three different methods. Convection: The transfer of heat by the movement of currents within a fluid.  Water heating up in a pot on the stove (you can see the water moving).

Heat Transfer:  Heat is transferred by three different methods. Convection: The transfer of heat by the movement of currents within a fluid.  Water heating up in a pot on the stove (you can see the water moving).  Convection currents?!?!

Convection current:

Heat Transfer:  Heat is transferred by three different methods. Radiation: The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.

Heat Transfer:  Heat is transferred by three different methods. Radiation: The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.  A fireplace warming a room.

Heat Transfer:  Heat is transferred by three different methods. Radiation: The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.  A fireplace warming a room.  Does not require matter to transfer thermal energy (the sun).

Heat Transfer:  Heat flow:

Heat Transfer:  Heat flow: Heat transfer goes in one direction.

Heat Transfer:  Heat flow: Heat transfer goes in one direction.  Heat leaves the warmer object and goes to the cooler object.

Heat Transfer:  Heat flow: Heat transfer goes in one direction.  Heat leaves the warmer object and goes to the cooler object.  This will continue until the two objects have the same temperature.

Heat Transfer:  Conductors:

Heat Transfer:  Conductors: A material that transfers thermal energy well, partially because its atoms or molecules are close together.

Heat Transfer:  Conductors: A material that transfers thermal energy well, partially because its atoms or molecules are close together. Silver Stainless steel tile

Heat Transfer:  Conductors: A material that transfers thermal energy well, partially because its atoms or molecules are close together. Silver Stainless steel tile  Insulators:

Heat Transfer:  Conductors: A material that transfers thermal energy well, partially because its atoms or molecules are close together. Silver Stainless steel tile  Insulators: A material that does not transfer thermal energy very well, partially because its atoms or molecules are not closely packed together.

Heat Transfer:  Conductors: A material that transfers thermal energy well, partially because its atoms or molecules are close together. Silver Stainless steel tile  Insulators: A material that does not transfer thermal energy very well, partially because its atoms or molecules are not closely packed together. Wood Wool Paper Atmospheric gases

Thermal Expansion: Does matter matter with thermal energy?

Matter:  What is matter?

Matter:  What is matter? Has mass

Matter:  What is matter? Has mass Takes up space (has volume)

Matter:  The three states of matter:

Matter:  The three states of matter: Solids  Has a fixed shape  Has a fixed volume

Matter:  The three states of matter: Solids  Has a fixed shape  Has a fixed volume Liquids  Has a shape that can change  Has a fixed volume

Matter:  The three states of matter: Solids  Has a fixed shape  Has a fixed volume Liquids  Has a shape that can change  Has a fixed volume Gases  Has a shape that can change.  Has a volume that can change.

Matter:

 The fourth state of matter is plasma.

Matter:  The fourth state of matter is plasma. Plasma is the highest energy state of matter (moving super fast).

Matter:  The fourth state of matter is plasma. Plasma is the highest energy state of matter (moving super fast). Very, very, very, very, very hot!!!

Matter:  The fourth state of matter is plasma. Plasma is the highest energy state of matter (moving super fast). Very, very, very, very, very hot!!! Found in places like our sun.

Matter:  The fourth state of matter is plasma. Plasma is the highest energy state of matter (moving super fast). Very, very, very, very, very hot!!! Found in places like our sun. Not always considered a state of matter.

Matter:  Changes in states of matter:

Matter:  Changes in states of matter: Matter can change from any state to any other state by adding energy.

Matter:  Changes in states of matter: Matter can change from any state to any other state by adding energy. The temperature does not change until the change of state is complete.

Thermal Expansion:  When an object is heated it usually responds to the heat.

Thermal Expansion:  When an object is heated it usually responds to the heat. One response is for the particles of the object to move faster and spread out (increasing volume).

Thermal Expansion:  When an object is heated it usually responds to the heat. One response is for the particles of the object to move faster and spread out (increasing volume). This causes the object to expand and is called thermal expansion.

Thermal Expansion examples:  When thermometers are exposed to warmer temperatures.

Thermal Expansion examples:  When thermometers are exposed to warmer temperatures.  Thermostats in your home.

Thermal Expansion examples:  When thermometers are exposed to warmer temperatures.  Thermostats in your home.  Sidewalks

Thermal Expansion examples:  When thermometers are exposed to warmer temperatures.  Thermostats in your home.  Sidewalks  Bridges

Thermal Expansion examples:  When thermometers are exposed to warmer temperatures.  Thermostats in your home.  Sidewalks  Bridges  Jars (pickles, jelly, etc…)

Thermal Expansion:  Contraction:

Thermal Expansion:  Contraction: 1. The heat source gets removed.

Thermal Expansion:  Contraction: 1. The heat source gets removed. 2. The particles move less and take up less space.

Thermal Expansion:  Contraction: 1. The heat source gets removed. 2. The particles move less and take up less space. 3. The size of the object decreases.

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