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Thomas Jefferson The period of time in U.S. history before the Civil War is known as the Antebellum Era ( )

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Presentation on theme: "Thomas Jefferson The period of time in U.S. history before the Civil War is known as the Antebellum Era ( )"— Presentation transcript:

1 The period of time in U.S. history before the Civil War is known as the Antebellum Era (1800-1860)

2 Thomas Jefferson

3 Election of 1800 “The Revolution of 1800”
Federalist John Adams Republican T. Jefferson VS Significance: this election was the first time in U.S. history when one political party peacefully transferred power to another(Federalists- Adams To Republicans - Jefferson). video

4 Election of 1800 What are the Electoral results of the election of 1800?

5 Article 2 Section 1 of the US Constitution
“…and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President.”

6 The House of Representatives eventually chose Jefferson (a Republican) to be the President (with some help from Alexander Hamilton), and Aaron Burr to be the Vice- President. Defeating John Adams (a Federalist).

7 Election of 1800 results in…
The 12th Amendment (1804) Presidents and Vice Presidents run on the same ticket (example: Obama/Biden or McCain/Palin) Think 1 vote before 12th and 2 votes after Now the 2nd place finisher does not get to be VP!


9 Jefferson Presidency (1801-1809)
In his inaugural address Jefferson says, “Every difference of opinion is not a difference of principle. We are all (Democratic-)Republicans; we are all Federalists.” What did he mean by this?

10 Jefferson’s election signals a decline in Federalist power and shows the growing importance of the South in NATIONAL politics

11 Democratic-Republican Party
Jefferson’s presidency marked the start of nearly 30 years of dominance by the Democratic-Republicans 8 yrs George Washington ( ) 4 yrs John Adams ( ) 8 yrs Thomas Jefferson ( ) 8 yrs James Madison ( ) 8 yrs James Monroe ( ) 4 yrs John Quincy Adams ( ) 8 yrs Andrew Jackson ( ) Federalist Party Democratic-Republican Party Democratic Party

12 If this image captures Jefferson’s vision of an ideal America, what was his vision? What role did Jefferson want the government to play in this ideal America?

13 Simplifying the Presidency
Jefferson wanted to reverse Federalist policies by reducing the size and cost of the national government: * He reduced the size of the army… * halted a Navy expansion… * cut costs for government social functions… * He eliminated taxes on whiskey, slaves, and property…

14 John Adams “Midnight Judges,” the Rise of John Marshall, & the Marbury v. Madison Case

15 The Supreme Court But, the Federalists did not want to see their policies destroyed by Jefferson and the Democratic- Republicans In the months before leaving office, President Adams pushed a bill through Congress that increased the number of federal judges to 16 Then, on the night before leaving office, Adams appointed numerous Federalists to become judges in federal courts (the “Midnight Judges”)

16 Some of the appointments had not been delivered and Jefferson ordered his Secretary of State James Madison not to deliver the judges appointments…One of these potential judges was William Marbury who sued Madison when he was deprived of his job as a judge jefferson Madison Marbury

17 Marbury v. Madison (1803) The Supreme Court ruled that the Judiciary Act of was unconstitutional This case established the principle of Judicial Review giving the Supreme Court the power to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional

18 Meanwhile tension continued to increase between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr (Jefferson’s VP)
Hamilton had caused Burr to lose two key elections; in 1800 for the Presidency against Jefferson and in for the Governorship of New York

19 Burr challenges Hamilton to a duel. Hamilton/Burr Duel
Hamilton fires into the air and Burr shoots and kills Hamilton.

20 Louisiana Purchase During Jefferson’s presidency, the U.S. population was growing and people were moving west... Jefferson was worried about the French Controlling the port of New Orleans So, he sent a delegation to France to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans from Napoleon Napoleon offered the entire Louisiana Territory

21 Jefferson was not sure if he should/could buy the territory because he believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution and he did not think the Constitution gave the president the power to buy land without Congress’ approval.

22 Louisiana Purchase Jefferson purchased Louisiana territory from French – Napoleon Bonaparte – for $15 million Size of US more than doubled. Video

23 Lewis and Clark Expedition
Jefferson eager to explore the new territory sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark on an exploratory expedition.

24 A Native American woman, Sacagewa served as their guide and interpreter

25 Jefferson was widely popular and easily won the election of 1804
But, Jefferson’s second term was plagued by foreign policy problems

26 The war between England and France led to more attacks on U. S
The war between England and France led to more attacks on U.S. trade ships The British navy impressed more than 1,000 American merchant sailors per year from 1803 to 1807

27 When three Americans were killed on the Chesapeake by the British many Americans were angry

28 Embargo Act of 1807 Frustrated by his inability to get England and France to stop attacking US ships Jefferson orders an embargo (ban on exporting goods) of both England and France. The embargo hurt American businesses more than it hurt England and France, merchants smuggled goods to continue trading. The embargo was lifted in 1809

29 RECAP Why is the Election of 1800 nicknamed a “revolution?”
What precedent did Marbury vs. Madison establish? Who did Thomas Jefferson buy the Louisiana Territory from? Who did TJ send out to explore the territory and what did they find?

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