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Is Anyone Not Sick? Chapter 7, Sections 2-3 Notes.

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1 Is Anyone Not Sick? Chapter 7, Sections 2-3 Notes

2 It’s not exactly holding a door open for a lady…  We talked about the Chinese Exclusion Act last week  Japanese kids had been segregated into separate San Francisco schools from other Americans  The Gentlemen’s Agreement was a compromise between U.S. and Japanese governments  Japan agreed to limit emigration of unskilled workers to the U.S. so Japanese students could go to regular schools in San Francisco

3 America’s Not Always Beautiful  Americanization movement  Kind of a cousin to the Assimilation of Indians (same concept)  This was an attempt to get ethnic groups to “be American”  They learned English, U.S. History, and Government  Cooking and social etiquette were taught  Many immigrants argued against Americanization, as they did not want to give up their traditions  Instead, many ethnic groups continued to live together in crowded neighborhoods

4 The Cities Really Weren’t Beautiful  A steady movement of people from farms to the cities occurs throughout the late 1800s…but things weren’t always nice  Problems:  Too few houses/housing opportunities  Not all cities had mass transit making transportation hard  Water was often collected from street faucets  Indoor plumbing didn’t exist as late as the 1860s  Water filtration wasn’t introduced until the 1870s  Chlorination of water happened in 1908

5 The Cities Really Weren’t Beautiful  Cities were dirty, including raw sewage flowing through open gutters, horse manure on the street, and smoky air  More people = more crime; not enough police  Lack of water meant it was hard to stop fires  Ex: Great Chicago Fire of 1871  Lasted over 24 hours  300 died; 100,000 left homeless  Ex: San Francisco Earthquake of 1906  Earthquake lasted 28 seconds  Resulting Fire lasted 4 days  1000 died; 200,000 left homeless

6 Help for the Poor  The Social Gospel Movement was run by middle-class, college educated women  The goal was to provide help for the poor  Educational, cultural, and social services were provided  Jane Addams started the Hull House in Chicago in 1889; was a co-winner of the Nobel Peace Price in 1931 for her work

7 There should have been rage against the machine (start of section 3)  Political machines were organized groups that controlled a political party in a city  They offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for political and financial support  It was corruption—but also effective

8 Pyramid Schemes  Base of Pyramid: local precinct workers and captains  They gained voter support by working the streets in a ward  Many were 1 st or 2 nd generation immigrants  They weren’t well-educated but were willing to do the “dirty work”  They could speak to immigrants in their native language  By helping immigrants gain housing, jobs, and citizenship the immigrants would vote for the precinct workers’ political party

9 Pyramid Schemes  Middle of Pyramid: Ward boss  Helped poor and gained votes by providing “help” to citizens  “There’s got to be in every ward somebody that any bloke can come to…and get help. Help, you understand; none of your law and your justice, but help.” –Martin Lomasney, ward boss in Boston’s West End  What kind of help do you think he meant?

10 Pyramid Schemes  Top of Pyramid: City Boss  Controlled political party activities throughout the city  Controlled access to municipal jobs and business licenses  Influenced the courts and other agencies  Stayed “clean”—let others do the “dirty work” (and take the fall if necessary)

11 City Bosses and Mayors  Sometimes city bosses were mayors, but often city bosses helped candidates instead of run themselves  Often, political bosses had more power than a city’s mayor  City bosses would provide government support for business and paid well for it  City bosses would do good works for a city  NY city boss built parks and sewer systems and gave money to schools, hospitals, and orphanages  City bosses wanted votes; people vote for people they trust  If city bosses’ candidates won elections, the city bosses stay powerful

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