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The Impending Crisis Chapter 13.

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1 The Impending Crisis Chapter 13

2 Manifest Destiny Indians were pushed into OK, KA, and NE—known as the Great American Desert This was so they could slowly grow into “civilized” culture American expansion grew much faster than anticipated As exploration occurred, Americans crossed through Native lands Santa Fé, Overland, Oregon, and Mormon Trails Those who were “settled” in KA and NE were forced on small reservations (and then forced to sell land altogether) when NE and KA became US territories in 1854 OK Indians were not forced to move (yet)

3 Manifest Destiny Natives in the west could not be “removed” due to the fact that there was nowhere else to go Early settlers are going to just move through tribal lands to settle CA, WA, and OR It would not be until after the Civil War that America would become involved in a series of wars that will leave the Indians on small reservations (that they are on today)

4 Manifest Destiny Pioneering became part of the American psyche
Adventurers like Daniel Boone are immortalized as ideal Americans How could the US rationalize expanding into the West though? It already had more land than people could settle To expand was to risk war with Britain (in the Pacific NW) and Mexico (in TX, NM, AZ, UT, NV, CA, and part of CO)

5 Manifest Destiny John O’Sullivan gave the reason
It was America’s manifest destiny (God-given right) to spread democracy to others (by force, if necessary) After all, look at the population boom, the transportation ingenuity, they American enterprising system American challenged any nation (especially Britain) to stop them

6 Manifest Destiny After the Panic of 1837 Americans believed that trade with Asia was necessary Only routes available would be the Columbia and MO rivers, not easy Some began to realize that claiming lands in CA, OR, and WA would give access to the Pacific Ocean Manifest Destiny was also an evangelical event Missionaries were some of the first to travel to the Far West They attempted to destroy the old native cultures and surround them with good American example

7 Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny also brought to light political differences between the Democrats and the Whigs Whigs wanted to keep within the borders to avoid conflicts such as the issue of slavery, but supported industrialization Democrats wholehearted believed in expansion and feared industrialization Industrialization leads to social unrest, recessions, and urban growth Most Democrats were Southerners who needed land to continue cotton farming

8 Manifest Destiny The Overland Trails led 5,000 to OR and 3,000 to CA
It cost about $1000 to purchase the wagon, oxen, food, clothing, and tools The dangers of travel depended on which region the settlers moved towards OR had dangerous mountains and river rapids CA had no water and had to get across the Sierra Nevadas before winter came The Donner Party got stuck in a winter snowfall forcing them to resort to cannibalism to survive

9 Overland Trails, 1840

10 Manifest Destiny Dangers included: Indian attacks, Cholera, drownings, and children getting run over by wagons Indian attacks had only killed 34 people compared to cholera at a rate of 1000/year Wagon train members attempted to provide decent burials and help for survivors By K had traveled the trails You can still see trails today (ruts, etc) By 1869 the transcontinental RR was complete ending the Wagon train era

11 Oregon Trail

12 Oregon Most of who settled OR were Midwest farmers lured by free land and patriotism (Oregon Fever) The director of the British owned Hudson Bay Company helped the settlers survive the winter despite orders no to The settlers drew up a constitution which banned black people (free and slave) Slaves still came with their owners One free, George Bush, settled in WA due to the law, and became well known for community cooperation

13 The Politics of Expansion
James Polk in his campaign for the presidency in 1844 coined the phrase “Fifty-four Forty or Fight” Once in office he compromised with Britain and established the border at the 49th Parallel Oregon’s Donation Land Claim Act of 1850 gave white males (18+) 320 acres and married white males 640 acres to settle in the new territory Sense of community was strong due to natural conditions causing catastrophe Some when even go back to last part of trail to help those who were on last leg of the trip

14 Texas In 1821 Mexico gained independence from Spain
There were 2,240 Tejanos living in Texas It was not uncommon for the farmers there to be faced with Comanche attacks They were not interested in being converted or trading with others The Mexican government granted Moses Austin 18K sq. miles of territory in TX

15 Texas Austin died soon after leaving the land to his son Stephen F. Austin, the first American empresario (land agent) Americans were already settling this land which didn’t belong to them In accepting the land, he agreed that he and the other settlers would become Mexican citizens and Catholics At a time when Americanness was defined by citizenship and being a Protestant

16 Texas Austin had no problem finding Americans to fill his demands
Only hunters (no drunks, gamblers, swearers, idlers) They were given 4,605 acres per family They soon outnumbered Tejanos 2:1 They did not intend to become Mexican citizens, Catholics or learn Spanish despite that being what Austin had promised Only one well known person, James Bowie, became part of the Tejanos by marrying in After his wife died, he too joined the Anglo-Texan movement and died for TX independence in the Alamo

17 Texas Balance between the Tejanos, Americans, and Comanches was destroyed when Mexico decided to firmly control the northern territory Americans, already displeased with the Mexican laws, threatened rebellion Mediation efforts by Austin (who was imprisoned by the Mexicans) failed and war broke out in 1835

18 Texas Americans captured Goliad and San Antonio from the small Mexican army that was their Thinking they had won, they were caught off-guard by Antonio López de Santa Ana whose men stormed the Alamo On March 6, 1836 Santa Ana’s forces overwhelmed the 187 men in the Alamo

19 Remember the Alamo!

20 Texas On April 21, 1836 Santa Ana thought he had Gen. Houston trapped at the San Jacinto River Taking a rest in the afternoon, Houston’s men surrounded Santa Ana’s forces and forced surrender On May 14, 1836 Santa Ana signed a treaty recognizing the Republic of Texas’ border at the Rio Grande The Mexican Congress refused to recognize TX independence Pres. Andrew Jackson offered to buy the land fairly

21 Texas Texas applied for statehood but was denied by Congress
J.Q. Adams (only President to become a Congressman afterwards) opposed the statehood Jackson was sympathetic to TX, but didn’t want the controversy that would occur (slavery) He did recognize the Republic of TX as a nation (less than 24 hours before he left office) Offered toast on his last night in office to the Republic and his good friend Sam Houston, president of Texas

22 Texas Although conquered, Texas would still be an embattled territory for years Van Buren took a stance of non-committal on the TX issue Tyler (who became Pres. After Harrison died) lost his chance for re-election by bringing up the issue His party (the Whigs) kicked him out and put Henry Clay up for the 1844 election The Democrats put up James K. Polk who was an expansionist Polk took his win as a sign that TX should be annexed In Dec TX became state #28 (15th slave state)

23 The Mexican-American War
Polk lived up to his campaign promise when he acquired Oregon Under his administration we also gain CA and NM Polk was THE Manifest Destiny president After TX became a state in 1845 it established a disputed border with Mexico Mexico had broken diplomatic relations Polk send General Zachary Taylor to the Nueces River to protest TX from a Mexican attack

24 The Mexican-American War
He secretly wanted all the land to the Pacific Ocean He told an American consul in Monterey, CA that an peaceful takeover would not be unwelcomed John C. Frémont appeared in CA with military men, but was asked to leave by Mexican authorities He left, but came back to aid in the Bear Flag Revolt

25 The Mexican-American War
CA saying they were playing the “Texas game” announced independence Polk sent John Slidell to “purchase” the rest of the Rio Grande border with Mexico They refused He sent Taylor in to attack He told Congress that the Mexicans had crossed into our side Congress declared war on May 13, 1846

26 The Mexican-American War
Many people believed that the war was unnecessary Abraham Lincoln opposed it saying that Polk had been misleading Others believed it was an attempt to spread slavery Northerners began protesting in large groups and on personal levels Henry David Thoreau (“Civil Disobedience”) went to jail for refusing to pay taxes he believed when towards the war

27 The Mexican-American War
The war became known as “Mr. Polk’s war” He planned strategy despite lacking military background Despite capturing a large part of their territory, Mexico refused to negotiate Gen. Scott took soldiers into Mexico City Throughout the path, they murdered, robbed and raped Mexican citizens By Sept Gen. Scott had captured Mexico City

28 The Mexican-American War
The resistance ended leading Nicholas Trist to deliver the terms of peace The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo includes: Mexico cede CA, UT, AZ, NM, NV, and CO The Rio Grande will be the official border in TX The US will pay $15M plus assume $2M in debt in citzien claims against Mexico Polk was furious with Trist because Polk had recalled him so that the US could demand more Trist ignored the demands Polk had wanted to claim “All Mexico!”

29 The Mexican-American War
Two groups opposed the idea of taking over Mexico The Whigs viewed it as a poison The Southern Democrats viewed it as danger since “half-breeds” would be on the same playing field of white A final purchase after the treaty called the Gadsden Purchase ($10M) completed the land needed to connect the South from east to west

30 The Mexican-American War
The Mexican American War is the first to have on-the-scene reporters Thanks to telegraphs and the penny press war news was a nightly occurrence This new led to the fame of Gen. Taylor and Gen. Scott

31 California and the Gold Rush
CA was a remote location with few Americans until 1849 The Russians had been the first to settle area previous occupied by Spain Mexico had forbidden the Califorinos to trade with outsiders This resulted in illegal trade with Americans and Russians The trade alliance built with Russia created a brief Russian-Californio connection until 1841

32 California and the Gold Rush
Johann Sutter, a Swiss, with an amazing land grant built a large estate and welcomed American settlers Rather than assimilating to Mexican culture, they were determined to take it over In the Bear Flag Revolt, they declared their independence from Mexico The American acquisition of CA wouldn’t occur until the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848

33 California

34 California and the Gold Rush
James Marshall found flakes of gold in 1848 The secret was out and before long the most men work working in the mines Once news reached the East farms and jobs were abandoned to earn a fortune They were called the “forty-nines” because that is the year that most traveled out for the Gold Rush The quite ranching paradise was now filled with miners

35 California and the Gold Rush
Chinese miners moved to CA in search of wealth They developed “Chinatowns” They were viewed as a threat to the economic prosperity of Americans, thus Chinese immigration was limited Levi Strauss learned that money was easily made in feeding and caring for the miners His pants (now named after him) were tough work pants in the fields

36 California and the Gold Rush
Most miner towns (unlike SF) disappeared after a few years While the miners were there, it was a dreary place without adequate housing The only “entertainment” they had was gambling, drinking, and prostitutes Most miners were young and unmarried and unsuccessful Only a small percent struck gold Most gold was too far down (needed machinery to access it) Most had to give up their independent status to become wage workers for mining companies like the Comstock Lode in Virginia City, NV

37 California and the Gold Rush
Most women were prostitutes Respectable women worked as keepers of boardinghouses Discrimination (especially racial) was common Miners would claim they were “jumped” then kill the other miner and keep his claim Really high taxes were placed on foreigners for being foreign

38 California and the Gold Rush
When the gold dried up, the people left, leaving ghost towns The Gold Rush left CA with a larger population, especially in SF It was more diverse and cultural than other cities The state had a great deal of racial animosity towards Chinese (we’ll see this again) CA would not be the only state to see rushes CO, MT, ID, SD, and AZ would soon have same fate

39 The Politics of Manifest Destiny
Between American grew 70% The manifest destiny concept controlled politics American pride pushed us to own the continent, and the swift victory over Mexico “proved” we were deserving Pres. Pierce sent Commodore Matthew Perry to Japan to open trade (successfully) “We shall have the boundless Pacific for a market in manifest destiny. We were born to command it.”

40 The Politics of Manifest Destiny
Southerners expansionist wanted more land Polk tried to get Congress to intervene in the Mexican civil war J. C. Calhoun, Sen. S.C., reminded everyone that they were duped into the Mexican War (True) Rumors in Washington included Polk’s offer of $100M for Cuba from Spain (Called the Ostend Manifesto) Spain declined The issue of acquisition of land fueled sectionalism even further

41 Sectional Debate Northerners feared, rightfully so, that expansionism would open the slavery issue again Ironically, a Democrat from PA, David Wilmot added a provision to a military bill banning slavery in the territory to be acquired from Mexico The Southern Whigs joined the Southern Democrats in voting against it The Northern Whigs and Democrats also came together to vote for it

42 Sectional Debate The controversial provision, now called Wilmot Proviso, was removed from the bill After the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo the issue was unavoidable Neither party could get a majority to get a law passed Fist-fights broke out as tension levels raised Party unity was now being threatened

43 Sectional Debate Wilmot introduced the proviso because of a rising third party called the Liberty Party They were strong abolitionists who were taking key votes away from both parties The Liberty Party wanted to end interstate slave trade, forbid slave owners from political office, and end use of slave labor for federal projects The party was too uncompromising and thus a new party emerged out of them called the Free-Soil Party

44 Sectional Debate The Free-Soil Party was willing to let slavery exist where it was (but didn’t agree with it) but was unwilling to let it expand They feared the expansion of slavery would make it too hard for northern and western farmers to compete with the southern farms When they said “antislavery” they meant “antiblack” They sought to ban black people in any new territory (like in OR and now IN, IL and IA)

45 Sectional Debate The Free-Soil Party was blasted by William Lloyd Garrison, calling it “whitemanism” Northerners may have been against slavery, but they were not for equal rights Sec. of State James Buchanan suggested extending the MO Compromise line Not accepted by the Free-Soil Party (and not seen as equitable by the Southerners given how far south the line is)

46 Sectional Debate In 1848 the election swirled around the issue of slavery Lewis Cass (Democrat) ran instead of Polk who was in bad health He proposed popular sovereignty Whigs passed over Henry Clay and chose war hero, Gen. Zachary Taylor “Old Rough and Ready”, very homespun type Privately, he opposed expansion of slavery, in public he dodged the issue by playing up a war hero record and a non-party kind of guy

47 Sectional Debate Van Buren, mad about being dumped in the `44 election ran as the Free-Soil candidate and stripped enough votes from Democrats so that Taylor won Taylor also died in office, killing the ability to maintain national unity

48 Compromise of 1850 As unrest grew stronger, a compromise was going to be needed to head off a war Henry Clay would step up to the challenge He knew that all the issues plaguing the country would have to be addressed if the compromise was going to be successful The Compromise of 1850 contained: California comes in as a free state NM and AZ were established as territorial governments with no restrictions on slavery Abolition of slave trade in D.C. New Fugitive Slave Act

49 Compromise of 1850 The debate raged on with the usual suspects
Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and John C. Calhoun Clay and Calhoun died before the Compromise could be agreed upon and Webster became Sec. of State taking him out of the debate A new, vibrant crowd emerged to fight the battles in Congress William Seward (NY)—no slavery Jefferson Davis (MS)—slavery is an economic issue Stephen A. Douglas (IL)—Not really concerned with either side, but was concerned about getting railroads in IL

50 Compromise of 1850 With the new leaders (mostly Douglas) they decided to break the bill down into its individual parts and pass them one by one Through backroom deals and bargaining each part of the Compromise was passed Millard Fillmore, President after Taylor died suddenly, signed the law saying “in its character final and irrevocable.”

51 Election of 1850 The election of 1850
Franklin Pierce, Dem. Gen. Winfield Scott, Whig John P. Hale, Free Soil Party The anti-slavery Whigs were mad that their party had not addressed the slavery issue, so the split off and went to the Free Soil Party That guaranteed a win for the Democrats

52 Franklin Pierce He tried to avoid the divisive issues
The Northerners opposed the Fugitive Slave Act by protesting Southerners had viewed the act as a victory, but watched as the North refused to abide by it Pierce tried to get people into the “Young America” movement which attempted to acquire Hawai’i and Canada Both were “eager” to join the U.S. but denied because of their stance on no slaves

53 Slavery, Railroads, and the West
Americans soon realized that the Mid-West was useful for planting They wanted to extend the railroad Who is that going to impact? Most Americans didn’t mind that we were breaking a treaty with Natives to expand The demand for a Transcontinental Railroad grew as we moved west

54 Slavery, Railroads, and the West
The problem was—do you put the TRR in the North or the South Those who opposed the South said that the RR would have to go through Mexican territory We solved that by making the Gadsden Purchase Those who opposed the North said that the RR would go through a much larger area of Native lands The crisis grew

55 The Kansas-Nebraska Controversy
In order to overcome the argument against the TRR in the North, Douglas put a bill on the table to organize the territory of NE The South immediately opposed it because it would bring a state in above the MO Compromise line meaning it would automatically be free Douglas added in popular sovereignty for the region Southerners wanted more so he included the repeal of the MO Compromise

56 The Kansas-Nebraska Controversy
Douglas also put into the bill a divide in the territory—the northern area would be Nebraska and the southern would be Kansas (and more likely to be a slave state) The Kansas-Nebraska Act led to a new party—the Republicans The Republicans were anti-Nebraska While they didn’t stop the KA-NE Act, they did become a very powerful party instantly

57 Bleeding Kansas When it came time for the territory of KA to vote for legislators, there were only 1500 eligible voters in the area 6000 people casted ballots—all the extras came from MO MO, being a slave state, selected pro-slavery candidates who upon winning immediately made KA a slave state

58 Bleeding Kansas The “free-state” supporters held their own constitutional convention in Topeka where they wrote an anti-slavery constitution and elected a governor They sent their constitution to Congress where Pres. Pierce called them traitors and refused it Pro-slavery members (including the Missourians) went to Lawrence where the anti-slavery headquarters was and sacked/burned the area

59 Bleeding Kansas Abolitionists, including John Brown and his sons, attacked and killed five pro-slavery advocates in what became known as the Pottawatomie Massacre They mutilated their bodies and left them so that other pro-slavery supporters would “get the hint” Each side of the argument pointed to this event as the reason for why they could not work with the other side

60 Bleeding Kansas In May 1856 MA Senator Charles Sumner gave a speech in which he said senators such as Andrew Butler (SC) had “chosen a mistress…the harlot slavery” Butler’s nephew, Preston Brooks (HoR, SC), took a heavy cane and beat Sumner nearly to death Injuries were so bad he didn’t return to work for 4 years Sumner became a hero to the North and Brooks became a hero to the South

61 Bleeding Kansas The pro-slavery faction sent the Lecompton Constitution to Congress to allow KA in as a slave state Buchanan supported the constitution and tried to make Congress accept it Douglas and other western Democrats refused it—the proposed a compromise If the citizens of KA approved the constitution they would become a state, if they rejected it KA’s statehood would be postponed With only KA voters involved, they rejected the Lecompton Constitution KA became a state after the Civil War had started

62 Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott was a slave who was owned by an Army surgeon in MO The surgeon moved to IL and WI with Scott and then died Scott sued the surgeon’s widow saying since he was in a free state, he should be free The original court ruled in favor of Scott, but the surgeon’s brother appealed the case

63 Dred Scott Decision The case made it to the Supreme Court
Roger Taney was Chief Justice He wrote in the majority decision that Scott was not a citizen, but rather property, and therefore could not sue Since the 5th Amendment says the government cannot take away property without due process, it also concluded that the MO Compromise was unconstitutional

64 The Rise of Lincoln Lincoln was a successful lawyer and a skillful Republican He ran against Douglas for the Senate seat of IL The Lincoln-Douglas debates drew national attention to Lincoln He frequently made impassioned speeches against slavery saying that if we denied black people basic rights, what would stop us from denying it to others? Douglas supported slavery and said that “negro citizenship in any and every form” should be denied Douglas won re-election, but Lincoln emerged with a national following that bolstered support for Republicans everywhere

65 John Brown’s Raid While Congress was in transition and fighting over the issue of slavery one event caught the nation’s eye John Brown, back in his home state of Virginia decided to lead a slave revolt When the other revolters didn’t show, he was left with 10 men, all of whom were captured, tried, and hanged Northerners mourned the loss of John Brown, as he was deemed a hero Southerners were offended that the North would mourn a murderer

66 Election of 1860 The Republicans chose Lincoln to be their candidate
He was an eloquent speaker who was not tied to these events like most other politicians were We was a representative of the west, which made him valuable since the Democrats chose Stephen Douglas I think you know who won…but what you may not know is his victory set into motion the secession of South Carolina and several other states

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