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Bell Ringer Under what circumstances do you believe it would be appropriate for the U.S. to go to war?

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Presentation on theme: "Bell Ringer Under what circumstances do you believe it would be appropriate for the U.S. to go to war?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Bell Ringer Under what circumstances do you believe it would be appropriate for the U.S. to go to war?

2 World War I and Its Aftermath Chapter 12

3 The United States Enters the War Wilson believed in honesty and unselfishness, he opposed imperialism He believed the US should promote democracy to ensure a peaceful world, free of revolution and war During Wilsons presidency, a revolutionary war was occurring in Mexico Porfirio Diaz is overthrown after the people of Mexico decide they are tired of the few own most of the wealth Francisco Madero takes Diaz place, but proved to be an inefficient leader, so he was murdered and Victorian Huerta took power Huerta was angry with Wilson who refused to recognize the new government; Wilson even authorized arming the other political factions

4 The United States Enters the War American sailors visited the city of Tampico were arrested Although the were released quickly the American General demanded an apology which was refused Wilson used this as an opportunity to overthrow Huerta which led to anti-American riots Venustiano Carranza became president of Mexico, which led to Pancho Villa to lead guerrillas into the US to force Wilson to intervene Wilson sent John J. Pershing to protect the US border with 6,000 troops, he was not successful in capturing them The US withdrew troops from the area due to the war in Europe in 1917

5 The United States Enters the War Despite nearly 40 years of peace there were a number of problems leading up the World War I The Alliance System While the US was in the Civil War Prussia was uniting to become the German Empire Germany attacked France and forced them to give up part of their boarder, making them enemies Germany allied with Italy and Austria-Hungry creating the Triple Alliance Russians feared expansion into their territory, so the allied with France creating the Franco-Russian Alliance

6 The United States Enters the War The Naval Race Great Britain had remained neutral until Germany began building up their navy Tensions between Great Britain and Germany begin to build when the arms race began Great Britain would not sign a formal alliance but instead entered into the entente cordialefriendly understanding Britain, France and Russia became known as the Triple Entente

7 The United States Enters the War The Balkan Crisis Nationalism had become an intense part of Europes beliefs Many groups believed in self-determinationthe idea that people who belong to a nation should have their own country and government These groups (Serbs, Bosnians, Croats, and Slovenes) from the Balkans all wanted independence Serbs form Serbia between the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary and want to unite the South Slavs Russia supported the Serbs, Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia, which the Serbs wanted, causing clash between Russia and Austria-Hungary

8 The United States Enters the War A Continent Goes to War In June 1914 the Archduke Franz Ferdinand visited the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo where he and his wife were assassinated The assassination was from Serbian officials who wanted to bring down the Austro-Hungarian Empire The A-Hs knew that an attack on Serbia might trigger a war with Russia so they asked for support from Germany July 28 th A-H declares war on Serbia, Russia mobilizes (including the German border) and asks France for help, August 1 st, Germany declared war on Russia, and on the 3 rd France World War I had begun

9 The United States Enters the War The Germans plan was to attack France, knock them out of the war then head east to attack Russia The problem is they had to go through Belgium, a British protectorate, to get to France When Germany goes through Belgium, Great Britain declares war on Germany France, Russia and Great Britain are going to be called the Allies (Italy would join in 1915); Germany, Austria-Hungary, and now the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria form the Central Powers Germanys plan was working to drive France back, but they didnt expect Russia to attack, when that happened they had to rally to attack them in the east The Battle of Marne will stop German advancement in France The area is going to be locked in a bloody stalemate for the next three years

10 The United States Enters the War Wilson declared that we must be neutral in thought as well as in action which would prove difficult Most Americans supported the Allied forces, but due to the large amount of immigrants in the US you see groups that support the Central Powers Pro-British Sentiment is going to be furthered due to propaganda Both sides used propaganda, but the British aimed theirs more towards Americans while Germanys was anti-Russia

11 The United States Enters the War Many businesses were pro-Britain Many American banks had loans tied to the allies, leading to a necessity for the Allies to win in order to get the money back Issues heat up between the US and Germany when the Lusitania, a British passenger liner carrying Americans was sunk Wilson said we were too proud to fight but sent diplomatic messages to Germany In March 1916 Germany attacked the Sussex which harmed Americans forcing Germany into the Sussex Pledge- promising to not sink merchant ships in exchange for the US staying out of the war This helped Wilson win the election at home with the slogan he kept us out of the war

12 The United States Enters the War Germany made a fateful mistake of having Arthur Zimmerman propose that Mexico ally with Germany and in return Mexico would get TX, NM and AZ back British intelligence intercepted the Zimmermann telegram, the news made America realize war was immanent Between Feb 3 rd and Mar 21 st Germany had sunk six American merchant ships Between these two events, Congress declared war on April 6, 1917

13 The Home Front Progressives controlled the federal government when the US entered the war They did not abandon their idea, but rather they applied them to fighting the war When the war started, the Army and National Guard had just a little more than 30,000 people Since Progressives were against conscription forced military servicethey came up with a less harsh system called selective service Selective Service is men age 21-30 who register for the draft, but rather than everyone having to go, there is a lottery to determine who is selected 2.8 million were drafted, 2 million volunteered

14 The Home Front African Americans are going to serve in the war 400,000 were drafted; 42,000 fought overseas as combat troops For the first official time, women also served in a warmany filled positions as clerics; the only ones to serve over seas were the Army Nursing Corps

15 The Home Front The War Industries Board was established to coordinate the production of war materials Led by Bernard Bunch the WIB controlled the flow of raw materials, ordered the construction of new factories and occasionally set prices The Food Administration, run by Hoover, encourage reducing consumption while increasing production They were asked to Hooverize by serving just enough and having wheatless Mondays, meatless Tuesdays and porkelss Thursdays He asked them to plant victory gardens-raising veggies for themselves and save farmers produce for soldiers To conserve energy, Daylight savings time was created

16 The Home Front By the end of the war the US was spending 33 million per daytotal of $42B To raise money, Congress passed new taxes Those taxes were not enough so the government sold Liberty Bonds and Victory Bonds

17 The Home Front The National War Labor Board Lead by William Howard Taft and Frank Walsh; it attempted to mediate labor disputes that might otherwise lead to strikes Women will take the jobs that men left to go to war, but when the war is over they will stop working to let the men have their jobs back

18 The Home Front With fewer immigrants in the states and men being shipped off, African Americans will find more opportunities The Great Migration occurred when southern African Americans migrated to the north to take factory work Mexicans will also migrate into the southwest to take jobs that were left by draftees

19 The Home Front The Committee on Public Information had the job of selling the war to the public, trying to get support for the war The Espionage Act established penalties and prison terms for anyone who aided the enemy The Sedition Act made it illegal to publicly express opposition to the war German sounding words were dropped, changing sauerkraut to liberty cabbage and hamburger to Salisbury steak Schools dropped German from their curricula and orchestras stopped playing music by German composers like Beethoven and Schubert In Schenck v. United States the Supreme Court ruled that free speech could be limited when the words uttered constitute clear and present danger such as saying fire in a crowded theater This was expanded to the war efforts saying that things said in time of war could cause danger to the soldiers

20 Assignment Should the government be allowed to restrict your freedom of speech in times of war to keep the country safe? In your response: Compare freedom of speech limitations to the limitations you experience at the airport (removing shoes, x-ray searches, etc.). Discuss the Espionage and Sedition Acts passed during WWI Discuss Schenck v. United States (p. 380) Your response should be 300-400 words long (put the word count at the bottom of the page). Your response should be scholarly with cited information. Due Thursday.

21 Bell Ringer Who should be responsible for keeping the world safe from dictators and other bad guys?

22 A Bloody Conflict Warfare was different in this war compared to past warssoldiers would hide in trenches until the artillery barrages were complete, then they would rush the other side, with bayonets Typically the other side would use machine guns to hold off attacks It was not uncommon for both sides of the attacks to lose several hundred thousand men

23 A Bloody Conflict It became apparent that technology was what would help win the war Germans introduced poison gas British introduced tanks Planes are also going to be used, mostly to observe enemy activity; eventually they started using them to drop bombs too The doughboys, a nickname for American soldiers, were inexperienced by fresh which improved morale significantly among Allied forces

24 A Bloody Conflict American Admiral William Sims ensured the safety of merchant ships and soldiers by creating the convoy system, where merchant ships were surrounded by warships Russia had political crisis at home with food and fuel shortages, which leads to Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Bolsheviks (Communists), becoming head of Russia His first act was to withdraw Russia from the war by signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germanythe treaty gave the Ukraine, Polish and Baltic territory to Germany, and withdrew German troops from the remaining Russian territory

25 A Bloody Conflict American troops forced a stall of German advancement into France Gen. Pershing lead the most massive attack in US history leading to the fall of many German positions A-H and Ottoman Turks become engulfed in a revolution, forcing them to drop from the war which leads the citizens of Germany to demand the Emperor step down On the 11 th hour of 11 th day of the 11 th month Germany signed an armistice ending the war

26 A Bloody Conflict In January,1919 a peace conference met in Paris Wilson (US), David Lloyd George (Br.) Georges Clemenceau (Fr.) and Vittorio Orlando (It.) were called the Big Four Germany was not invited Wilson had presented his Fourteen Points to Congress the year before which included five points free trade, disarmament, freedom of the seas, impartial adjustment of colonial claims, and open diplomacy instead of secret agreements The next eight addressed self-determination, including Central Powers evacuating all areas invaded during the war The Fourteenth Point was the establishment of the League of Nations to prevent war by pledging to respect peace and protect each others territory and political independence

27 A Bloody Conflict The Allied forces criticized Wilsons ideas as being too lenient toward Germany At the Treaty of Versailles Germany was stripped of their armed forces and forced to pay reparations ($33 B) to Allied forces; Germany also had to accept responsibility for WWI The war resulted in the dissolution of four empires: Russian, Ottoman, German, Austro-Hungarian Three new countries were created: Yugoslavia, Poland, and Czechoslovakia

28 A Bloody Conflict Wilson found some hope when others agreed to a League of Nations and the Treaty, but he had to get support at home for the US to join It met opposition at home immediately, Senators said it was the type of entangling alliance the Founding Fathers had warned about Other Senators said they would agree if there was a clause keeping the US free to make their own decisions regarding war, Wilson feared this would change the purpose of the League Wilson took his case to the people, but had a stroke and was bedridden for months, the Senate would oppose the League and Treaty twice before Wilson left office After he left, Congress negotiated a new treaty with the Central Powers and the League of Nations would form without the United States

29 The Wars Impact Make sure you read this section! I am only giving you a few pieces of information for the section The Boston Police StrikeCalvin Coolidge, Gov. MA, had to send in National Guard when police went on strike After the strike was over, the police who went on strike were fired which Coolidge supported since it was against public safety (Coolidge would be asked to run for VP after this event)

30 The Wars Impact Red Scare evolves after the war Red Scare was the fear the Communists would try to gain power in the country and turn it into another Russia Packages with bombs were sent to business leaders and politicians homes including one sent to A. Mitchell Palmer, US Attorney Gen. The General Intelligence Division (later became the FBI) was lead by J. Edgar Hoover Palmer organizes raids to search radicals property which lead to thousands detained and some deported

31 The Wars Impact Progressivism ends in the 1920 election James M. Cox (OH. Gov.) runs with Assistant Sec. of the Navy, FDR on the platform of keeping Wilsons ideas going Warren G. Harding ran on the platform return to normalcy or the simpler days before progressivism Harding won by a landslide

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