Presentation on theme: "The Exploitation Years (1620-1900) A. The Roots of Abuse 1. The first colonists o disease, starvation, war 2. Manifest Destiny & Westward Expansion o."— Presentation transcript:
The Exploitation Years (1620-1900) A. The Roots of Abuse 1. The first colonists o disease, starvation, war 2. Manifest Destiny & Westward Expansion o Manifest Destiny was the widely held belief by Americans in the 19th century (1800s) that the US was destined to expand across the continent, explaining the need to expand past the Louisiana territory
The Exploitation Years (1620-1900) B. Myth of Super Abundance Raid on resources; hunting to extinction Increased pollution
conservation- an ethic of resource use, allocation, and protection, especially of the natural environment C. Early Philosophers of Conservation (1840s) 1. Henry David Thoreau o author of Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings 2. George Perkins Marsh Wrote and spoke against destructive impact of human activity on land
Conservation Years (1900-WWII) A. The Early Leaders 1. John Muir o Naturalist and early advocate of preservation of wilderness in the US, considered "Father of the National Parks o Founded Sierra Club- conservationist organization 2. Gifford Pinchot o First Chief of US Forest Service 3. Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909) o the nation's first conservation President
We do not intend our natural resources to be exploited by the few against the interests of the many. Theodore Roosevelt & John Muir
Conservation Years (1900-WWII) B. FDR & Renewed Conservation Initiatives 1. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) 2. Eastern National Forests Created (WI- Nicolet & Chequamegon NF, 1934)
The Environmental Era (1948- ??) A. Aldo Leopold & an Environmental Philosophy o UW professor & environmentalist, wrote A Sand County Almanac B. The Awakening of Environmental Consciousness o Rachel Carson and Silent Spring o Other books alert public to danger
The Environmental Era (1948- ??) C. A Decade of Unrest (1960s) 1. Racism & Vietnam 2. The Santa Barbara Oil Spill 3. Cuyahoga River burns in Ohio 4. A view from space- able to see systemic and rapid deforestation, due to first satellite D. A Grass-Roots Movement Explodes 1. First Earth Day, 1970
The Environmental Era (1948- ??) E. The Environmental Decade-significant legislation 1. Wilderness Act, 1964 2. National Environmental Policy Act, 1969 3. The Clean Air Act, 1970 4. The Clean Water Act, 1972 5. Endangered Species Act, 1973 6. Alaska Lands Bill, 1980 7. Superfund, 1980 o federal law designed to clean up sites contaminated with hazardous wastes
The Environmental Era (1948- ??) F. Institutionalizing Environmental Protection 1. The Environmental Protection Agency, created in 1969 2. The WI Dept of Natual Resources, created in 1967 G. Reagan & Bush Years 1. Chernoybl – 1986 2. Exxon Valdez disaster- 1989 3. Kyoto Protocol- almost all countries in world are pledged to reduce emission of gasses that contribute to global warming (2005)
Federal Government Department of Interior US Fish and Wildlife Service- endangered species, migratory waterfowl, etc. Park Service- manage National Parks Bureau of Land Management- manage public grazing lands, mostly in western states.
Federal Government Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service- grants, $ for conservation programs. Forest Service- manage National Forests Farm Service Agency- Conservation Reserve Program
Federal Government Department of Energy- regulates energy production and sales, ensure safety Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - enforcement agency, enforces compliance with environmental policies
Wisconsin Government Department of Natural Resources (DNR) led by secretary of the department (who is appointed by the governor), and Natural Resources Board, who oversees operations of the department (7 elected positions for 6 year terms).