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From Territory To Statehood

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1 From Territory To Statehood

2 Northwest Ordinance: 1787 The Ordinance organized the territory between the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. It provided a path to Territory status and eventually to admission as a new State No Slavery Eliminated old State Claims Guaranteed Natural Rights (Pre Bill of Rights) Established Township System 2

3 Wisconsin Territorial History
1800: What is now Wisconsin is assigned to Indiana Territory Though technically American, Wisconsin is still controlled by British fur traders and descendants of the French Americans and British fought a battle at Prairie du Chien during War of 1812 America did not exercise control of Wisconsin until after War of 1812 3

4 Early Settlement 1822: Colonel James Johnson of Kentucky leads group of miners from Galena, Illinois into southwest Wisconsin to establish lead mines Lead mining becomes the first major resource attracting settlers to Wisconsin 4

5 Lead Mining in Wisconsin
Early miners dug holes in hillsides for dwellings and became known as Badgers Professional miners from Wales and Cornwall soon arrived Lead shot was a major product By 1850, many small miners turn to farming 5

6 Early Milwaukee 1818, Solomon Juneau travels south from Green Bay & builds a trading post, later run by his son & daughter 1819, Byron Kilbourn establishes store & trading post on west bank of Milwaukee River. “Kilbourntown” he makes sure his E-W Streets do NOT match up with those east of river in “Juneautown” George H Walker establishes third settlement south of other two, becomes known as Walker’s Point 6

7 Winnebago War, 1827 Ho-Chunk warriors led by Red Bird attack keel boats on the Mississippi River. Angry at growing presence of lead miners They mistakenly believed that two jailed Ho-Chunk had been sent to a rival tribe for execution by whites at Prairie du Chien 7

8 Winnebago War, 1827 Most tribes failed to support Red Bird
600 soldiers under Henry Atkinson from St Louis and militia under Henry Dodge make show of force, Red Bird surrenders, is arrested and dies in prison Ho Chunk forced to sign treaty permanently giving lead mine areas to the United States The same issues will be involved in Black Hawk’s War, 1832 8

9 Brown County/ Green Bay
First session of Brown County Court, July Judge Jacques Porlier, started as French fur trader First US District Court, Green Bay, October Judge James Doty 9

10 Black Hawk’s War: 1832 Black Hawk was a Sauk Chief
In 1832 he led his tribe & a group of Meskwakis & Kickapoos across the Mississippi back on to land they had given up in a disputed treaty signed in 1804 Group of tribes known as British Band, American settlers and lead miners assumed they were hostile 10

11 Battle of Sycamore Creek, or Stillman’s Run, May 14
Poorly trained Illinois Militia under Major Isaiah Stillman attacked the British Band near Sycamore Creek Black Hawk and the Band killed 12 militia and the rest fled Black Hawk then led his people north into Wisconsin searching for land safe to settle on, but are pursued by US Army 11

12 Battle of Wisconsin Heights June 21st
Regular US Army Troops under Henry Atkinson pursue Black Hawk north Wisconsin Militia under Henry Dodge defeat Black Hawk at Wisconsin Heights. Black Hawk and his band then try and escape west, back across the Mississippi 12

13 Battle of Bad Axe River August 2nd
US Army Troops catch Black Hawk’s Band on the east bank of the Mississippi, just south of the Bad Axe River Gunboat Warrior shells Indians from Mississippi The British Band is massacred and only Black Hawk and a few tribal leaders escape 13

14 Milwaukee: First Steamboat arrives in 1834, soon traffic is regular German immigrants begin to settle in Milwaukee area 14

15 Wisconsin Territory: 1836 Congress creates Wisconsin Territory, April 20, 1836 Henry Dodge first Territorial Governor Dodge selects Belmont (lead region) as first capital 15

16 State Capitol Changes Belmont proved to be to remote.
James Doty proposed the isthmus between two lakes (Where he happened to have bought up much land) and convinced Dodge and legislature to move there. Capital was temporarily in Burlington (now Iowa) while buildings were built, and roads laid out 16

17 Treaty of St Peters: 1837 Henry Dodge signs treaty with Ojibwe & Sioux
Indians cede land, retain hunting & fishing rights Pressure for treaties from cities like St Louis & Cleveland that needed lumber for growing populations 17

18 Ho Chunk Treaties: 1837 Ho Chunk refused to treat with Governor Dodge
Keramani, Yellow Thunder & Waukon Decorah travel to Washington DC to negotiate with Federal Government Eventually forced to agree to cede all lands & move west of Mississippi, though hunting & fishing rights retained Many never leave, or leave and then return 18

19 University, Post Offices, etc
In 1838, Territorial Legislature appropriates land for the University of the Territory of Wisconsin, ground is broken in Madison Land is also set aside for 80 Post Offices around territory Milwaukee & Rock River Canal Company is chartered 19

20 New Governors In 1841, William Henry Harrison appoints James Doty to succeed Henry Dodge as second territorial governor Dodge's supporters in territorial legislature block most of Doty's plans, and vote against statehood four times In 1844 President Tyler replaces Doty with Nathaniel Tallmadge James Doty Henry Dodge Nathaniel Tallmadge 20

21 Towards Statehood In 1845, Tallmadge is replaced by Dodge as Governor
In 1846 the people of Wisconsin vote in favor of Statehood First Constitutional Convention, Madison, After much debate, the delegates reject the proposed constitution This constitution gave African-Americans the right to vote and gave women the right to own property 21

22 Statehood: 1848 Second attempt at Constitution successful
Less liberal than first attempt, criticized by some Wisconsin admitted to Union, May 29, 1848 22

23 First State Leaders Governor: Nelson Dewey (Democrat)
Senators: Henry Dodge and Isaac Walker (Democrats) Congressmen: William Lynde and Mason Darling (Democrats) 23

24 Railroads 1853: Milwaukee & Mississippi RR completes line to Madison
1857: M&M finishes line to Mississippi River Railroads open land up for settlers and immigrants As wheat farming replaces lead mining, railroads become increasingly more important 24

25 Republican Party February 1854, Republican Party founded in Ripon, WI
Anti slavery, founded in reaction to Kansas-Nebraska Act Party quickly spreads to other northern states 25

26 Bashford vs Barstow 1855: Democrat William Barstow defeats Republican Coles Bashford by 157 votes. Bashford claims election fraud Courts review results & see pattern of votes from nonexistent precincts in northern counties, especially Waupaca Co. Court decides in favor of Bashford. Barstow says he will not be removed from office alive, but later backs down 26

27 Civil War: April 1861 Governor Alexander Randall issues call for volunteers Randall raised 18 infantry regiments, 10 artillery batteries and three troops of cavalry, exceeding Federal requirements Camp Randall in Madison served as recruiting & training center for Wisconsin troops, later a POW camp 27

28 Wisconsin in the Civil War “The Iron Brigade”
2nd, 6th & 7th Wisconsin Volunteer Regiments, and the 19th Indiana Regiment Known as the Iron Brigade, and the Black Hat Brigade Part of the Army of the Potomac, fought at 2nd Manassas Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville & Gettysburg Helped slow Confederates on 1st day of Gettysburg Highest casualty rate of all Union Brigades during the war 28

29 Wisconsin in the Civil War “The Old Abes”
8th Wisconsin Infantry brigade became known as the Eagle Regiment, because of a pet bald eagle that had been caught and tamed by a Native American recruit “Old Abe” attended regimental reunions until his death, 1881 29

30 Wisconsin in the Civil War Governor Louis Harvey
Louis Harvey and his wife Cordelia traveled to Shiloh to help nurse Union soldiers after the battle Harvey slipped de-barking from a steam boat and drowned His wife continued nursing, and helped convince Lincoln to establish veterans hospitals after the war 30

31 Wisconsin in the Civil War Colonel Joseph Bailey
General Nathaniel Banks lead a campaign up the Red River. He was defeated at Sabine Crossroads, had to retreat downriver Dry weather & low water in the river trapped a navy squadron under Admiral David Porter Bailey and Wisconsin lumberman built a dam, then released the water and floated the squadron over the shoals and to safety downriver 31

32 Wisconsin in the Civil War Resistance to the Draft
In November, 1862, Catholic German settlers in Ozaukee Co protested against the draft by destroying the draft office and occupying the Courthouse. Governor Salomon was forced to use the 28th Infantry from Milwaukee to restore order 32

33 Wisconsin in the Civil War Results
Over 90,000 soldiers & sailors from Wisconsin served 3,794 were killed in action 8,022 died of disease 33

34 Increase Lapham: Increase Lapham, State Surveyor, makes many geological discoveries around Wisconsin, including a meteorite In 1867 he warns about the environmental consequences of overlogging Wisconsin forests Believes weather can be predicted by using maps & recording meteorological data. He founds the National Weather Bureau Creates first geological map of Wisconsin 34

35 Laura Ingalls Wilder: 1867-1957
Laura Ingalls Wilder is born in Pepin County, Wisconsin She will go on to write a series of books about life in the woods and on the prairies of Wisconsin, Kansas, Minnesota South Dakota and Missouri 35

36 Frank Lloyd Wright: Frank Lloyd Wright is born in Richland Center, Wisconsin Organic architecture, structures in harmony with humans and with the environment Wright becomes leader of the Prairie School of Architecture 36

37 Ho Chunk Removal 1870: Several Ho Chunk bands are still in Wisconsin despite having signed treaty calling for them to move west White settlers become alarmed and petition Congress 1872, Congress appropriates money for removal of Ho Chunk 1873, Ho Chunk forcibly removed to reservations in Nebraska 37

38 Fire! - October 1871 Huge fires sweep through Door, Oconto, Shawano, Brown and Kewaunee Counties. The town of Peshtigo is destroyed people killed, over 3000 made homeless 38

39 Wisconsin: 1873 Christopher Sholes of Kenosha invents the typewriter
Revolutionizes office work, and later, school work 39

40 Logging & Timber Logging began in the late 1830s and reached its height Many Scandinavian Immigrants made a living as loggers Logs floated down the Black, Chippewa Wolf, Fox & Wisconsin Rivers to sawmill towns like Stevens Point, Oshkosh Wausau, Eau Claire and others 40

41 Sawdust War: 1881 Sawmill workers in Eau Claire go on strike, demanding reduction of working hours to a ten hour day Protests, riots and damage to property ensue 8 Companies of National Guard called to restore order 41

42 The Circus! The 7 Ringling Brothers of Baraboo, Wisconsin started giving shows in 1882, and began performing as a circus in 1884 In 1907 they bought Barnum & Bailey's Circus Until 1918, their headquarters was in Baraboo 42

43 Iron Ore 1885, Iron Ore is discovered in the Gogebic Range
New towns spring up along with mines Hurley grew from 80 people to over 2500 43

44 Wisconsin Veterans Home: 1887
Retirement facilities for military veterans were inadequate for the numbers of Civil War Veterans Wisconsin legislature voted to create a new facility Waupaca's bid was chosen ahead of five other cities The home was the dream of Dr. Frederick Marden, who served in the Navy during the Civil War. Marden died under mysterious circumstances in Milwaukee in 1887, and the first hall built in Waupaca was named after him 44

45 Bible Reading in School
In 1890, the Wisconsin Supreme Court ruled that reading the Bible in the Edgerton Public Schools was in fact religious instruction The Court held that this was unconstitutional In 1963, when the US Supreme Court ruled the same way they cited the Edgerton case as precedent 45

46 Civil Rights 1889, Owen Howell, a black Milwaukee citizen is denied the seat he had purchased on the floor of the Bijou Opera House. With the help of black attorney William Green, Howell sues and wins In 1899 the Wisconsin Legislature passes a law prohibiting racial discrimination in restaurants, inns, hotels & all other public accommodations Wisconsin is years ahead of many other states, especially in the South 46

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