The Process of writing is a process of thinking It is not simply a sequence of steps a sequence of steps
Don’t try to think the paper, then write it. Writing helps you think.
Audience: write to somebody Writing to no one in particular makes your essay sound abstract and dull. Writing to a real person helps you to: refine your purpose decide what evidence will work best decide what tone to take
The First Step: Invention Techniques To generate content quickly and painlessly
Invention techniques These are designed to bypass left-brain strictures (grammar, structure, logic) (grammar, structure, logic) In order to emphasize right-brain creativity (play, frolic, sport, romp) So do these games quickly, without judging the outcome.
Brainstorming (or listing) Everybody does this, from shopping lists to “to do” lists. Brainstorming is an easy way to generate content especially if you have little time for planning because it lets you order your ideas quickly
FREEWRITING Freewriting is writing freely, without worrying where you’re going or how it looks. Freewriting is talking to yourself on paper. No one will see it but you. When finished, decide what you can use.
Focused Freewriting When you can write freely, your hand automatically recording what your mind is thinking, you can set your mind in any direction you like and produce freewriting on specific subjects.
Cubing Cubing is useful for exploring a topic from six different perspectives. In cubing you describe,compare,associate,analyze,apply, and argue for and against your subject.
Mapping (or clustering) Mapping is a picture of your thinking or planning. It’s a way to reveal relationships among facts and ideas. Use it early to find subtopics and organize information. Use it later while drafting or revising.
The next step: A First Draft This first draft is an exploration. Try to let yourself go, writing and thinking at the same time. writing and thinking at the same time. This draft should extend your invention play.
First Draft Advice: Write out the entire draft in one sitting. Write out the entire draft in one sitting. Don’t worry about grammar, spelling, structure. Don’t worry about grammar, spelling, structure. Don’t start with the introductory paragraph Don’t start with the introductory paragraph (because you don’t know what you’re introducing yet.)
The Second Draft The first draft is focused on content; the second is focused on structure: the second is focused on structure: Give this draft structure by adding paragraphstransitions an introduction and conclusion
The first draft is personal The first draft is personal (something only you fully understand). (something only you fully understand). The second draft is public The second draft is public (something others can easily follow). (something others can easily follow).
The trick to making your essay public Read it through someone else’s eyes, to see where they need transitions where they need more examples where they need clearer explanations
Add an introduction To orient your readers To tell them what they need to know in order to understand your thesis
Clarify your thesis This is your basic idea, the main point of your essay.
Add a map (or forecast) to your thesis This is a sentence or two that gives an overview of your essay: how you’ll develop your thesis, the main reasons that will support your point.
Clarify your paragraphs (A paragraph is a group of sentences about the same topic.) Add any sentences you need to make the point clear and vivid. point clear and vivid. Kick out any sentences that don’t belong. Organize what’s left.
Add transitions Sentences relate to each other. Use transitions to make the relationship clear between sentences between ideas between paragraphs
Add a conclusion A summary is common, but uninspired. Instead, answer this question: So what? Your conclusion should tell the reader why your topic is important why your point of view is important
The next step is to Revise Revising means more than simply fixing grammar and spelling. Revising means Rethinking.
Rethinking: Reorganize your reasons Reorganize your reasons Add more examples Add more examples Clarify your thesis and topic sentences Clarify your thesis and topic sentences Rewrite sentences to make them Rewrite sentences to make them Clear Clear Concise Concise Vivid Vivid Add a good title Add a good title both honest and interesting
The next step is to edit and proofread Read carefully for spelling and grammar Read carefully for spelling and grammar Edit to make sentences smooth and direct Edit to make sentences smooth and direct Make your final copy neat and easy to read Make your final copy neat and easy to read Usually typed and double-spaced Usually typed and double-spaced Usually with a title, but not a title page Usually with a title, but not a title page Proofread very carefully Proofread very carefully Turn it in on time Turn it in on time
When you get your paper back Read and work through instructor’s comments. Read and work through instructor’s comments. Correct all grammar and mechanical errors. Correct all grammar and mechanical errors. Clarify with your instructor any comments you don’t understand. Clarify with your instructor any comments you don’t understand.