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Chapter 22: “The Ordeal of Reconstruction”

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1 Chapter 22: “The Ordeal of Reconstruction”

2 The Problems of Peace No leader to start the Reconstruction
Life in the South was damaged Farms, and crops were destroyed Slaves are now free Many cities were bombed out Slave owners $2 billion dollar investment disappeared with emancipation The “Old South” had gone with the wind

3 Freedmen Define Freedom
Church becomes the focus of black community With freedom came education, but severe discrimination would face those who pursued it Freed blacks still enslaved by planters Claimed that emancipation wasn’t legal until declared by local or state courts Slaves retaliated by pillaging master’s things

4 The Freedman’s Bureau Established March 3, 1865
Headed by Union General Oliver O. Howard The first type of welfare program in the U.S. It was to provide food, clothing, medical care, and education to both freedmen and to white refugees. However, slaves would eventually be contracted again by slave owners Pres. Andrew Johnson, who shared Southern Supremacist feelings, ended it in 1872

5 Union General Oliver O. Howard

6 The Freedman’s Bureau

7 Plenty to eat and nothing to do.
Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes Plenty to eat and nothing to do.

8 Freedmen’s Bureau School

9 Johnson: “The Tailor President”
Came from poverty and humble beginnings Moved to Tennessee, elected to Congress Gained great attention when he didn’t secede along with his state of Tennessee Became Vice-Pres. because Congress sought a Southern Democrat they could compromise with Did not fit well with seat of presidency

10 President Johnson’s Plan (10%+)
Offered amnesty upon simple oath to all except Confederate civil and military officers and those with property over $20,000 (they could apply directly to Johnson) In new constitutions, they must accept minimum conditions repudiating slavery, secession and state debts. Named provisional governors in Confederate states and called them to oversee elections for constitutional conventions. 1. Disenfranchised certain leading Confederates. 2. Pardoned planter aristocrats brought them back to political power to control state organizations. EFFECTS? 3. Republicans were outraged that planter elite were back in power in the South!

11 Presidential Reconstruction
Established two types of Republicans; Moderates (agree w/ Lincoln) and Radicals (those who believe the South should be punished When Johnson came to power, Radicals thought they would control him, but he agreed with Lincoln and even came up with his own plan for reconstruction using Lincoln’s ideas

12 The Baleful Black Codes
Started in 1865 Established to keep blacks in submission Blacks who attacked labor contractors would face penalties and fines Blacks could be punished for idleness; would be subjected to work in a chain gang

13 Congressional Reconstruction
December, reintegration occurred, many Confederates and Democrats of the South showed up to the dismay of many Republicans Republicans didn’t want to lose the legislations they passed South is stronger politically because blacks now count for one person instead of 3/5

14 Congressional Reconstruction
Feared that the North and South Democrats would join and institute their Black Codes throughout the nation December 6, Johnson claims the South has satisfied all conditions and pronounces the Union restored

15 Johnson Clashes with Congress
Johnson repeatedly vetoed Republican-passed bills, like a bill to extend the Freedmen’s Bureau and the Civil Rights Bill As Republicans gain control of Congress, they began to override his vetoes by a 2/3 majority Blacks still not given the right to vote, but Radical Republicans agreed that all states had to ratify the amendment to remain in the Union.

16 Republican Principles and Programs
Radicals want to keep the South out of the Union as long as possible and change its economy Moderates wanted quicker reconstruction Compromise would become between the two

17 Reconstruction by Sword
The Reconstruction Act, March 2, 1867, divided the South into five military zones Laid down guidelines for the readmission of states The 15th Amendment gave the blacks the right to vote in 1869 Ex Parte Milligan- a case in which the Supreme Court ruled that military tribunals could not try civilians if there were no civil courts

18 Charles Sumner & Thaddeus Stevens Senate House

19 5 Military Districts

20 The Civil War Amendments
13th Amendment- Slavery, or work done involuntarily, except when punished, is prohibited in the U.S. or any part controlled by it 14th Amendment- All people born in the U.S. are citizens at the place of their birth 15th Amendment- A citizen’s right to vote will not be denied or taken away due to race, color, or previous slave status

21 No Women Voters 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments did not give women suffrage Women advocates like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony campaigned against the 14th and 15th Amendments Women didn’t get what they wanted

22 Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony

23 The Realities of Radical Reconstruction in the South
Blacks began to organize politically- created the Union League Black men began serving in Congress Southerners hated seeing their former slaves hold higher positions than they Showed malice towards “scalawags” and “carpetbaggers” There was contempt for both groups in the South

24 Scalawags and Carpetbaggers

25 Black Reconstruction

26 The Ku Klux Klan Started in Tennessee in 1866
Also known as the “Invisible Empire of the South” Dedicated to scaring blacks into not voting or seeking employment

27 The Ku Klux Klan

28 Johnson Walks the Impeachment Plank
Congress passes the Tenure of Office Act in 1867 Claims the President must be allowed by the Senate to remove his appointees if they have been approved by the Senate They did this to keep Edwin M. Stanton, who was a Republican spy, in office Johnson released Stanton of duty in 1868 Republicans impeached him after he let him go

29 Edwin M. Stanton

30 A Non-Guilty Verdict for Johnson
Johnson advised not to testify by his lawyers They claimed the Tenure of Office was unconstitutional May 16, 1868, Johnson was acquitted of charges by one vote (7 out of 6 votes) Radicals were enraged by the acquittal, but other politicians feared setting the precedent of removing the president of office by impeachment

31 The Purchase of Alaska Secretary William H. Seward bought Alaska from Russia in 1867 Bought it for $7.2 million Most people laughed at him and called it “Seward’s Folly” Not until later when gold and oil were discovered was the purchase of Alaska considered to be a bargain

32 The Purchase of Alaska

33 The Heritage of Reconstruction
Many Southerners regarded reconstruction as worse than the Civil War It destroyed their system of society The Republicans failed to improve the conditions of the South Conditions for blacks would remain difficult for at least another century until the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950’s & 60’s

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