12 Chemical PropertiesChemical properties describe matter based on it ability to change into new matter that has different properties.Reactivity with i.e. acid, oxygenFlammability
13 CompoundOther substances are made up of more than one element and are known as compounds.Examples:Water – hydrogen and oxygenTable salt – sodium and chlorineSugar – carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen
14 CompoundA Compound is a pure substance made of two or more elements chemically combined.Basically, a compound is formed as a result of a chemical change.Examples: H2O, H2SO4 (Sulfuric acid)
15 Compounds and EarthMost of the matter making up the earth is composed of compounds.Sugar is a compound – it is made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.Table salt – sodium and chlorine.
16 FormulaA formula is a combination of symbols that shows the ratio of elements in a compound.Example: C9H8O4 otherwise known as aspirinC12H22O11 – Sugar!
17 Water is a familiar compound Water is a familiar compound. Water is made up of two elements – hydrogen and oxygen. The chemical formula is H2O.The 2 in the formula is a subscript. It tells the number of atoms of that element. So Hydrogen has how many atoms? How many oxygen?
18 FYIThe suffix “–ide” is often used in chemistry to form the names of compoundsExample: Iron Sulfide – iron and sulfurSodium Chloride – table salt
19 MixtureA mixture consists of two or more substances that are in the same place together but are not chemically combined into a new substance.Example: Garden soil
20 Types of MixturesA homogeneous mixture has the same uniform appearance and composition throughout. Many homogeneous mixtures are commonly referred to as solutions.A heterogeneous mixture consists of visibly different substances or phases. The three phases or states of matter are gas, liquid, and solid.
21 Examples Air Vinegar Blood plasma Sugar water Salt in water (dissolved)Sand in waterTrail mixVinegar in oilMilkChicken Soup
22 Mixture A solution is a type of mixture. Individual components are mixed evenly throughout the mixture.Example: saltwater
23 What is a Solution?A solution is a mixture that appears to be a single substance.At least two substances must be mixed in order to have a solution.The SOLUTE is the substance being dissolved.The SOLVENT is the substance in which the solute is dissolved.
25 SolubilityIf you add too much sugar to a glass of lemonade, not all of the sugar can dissolve. Some of it sinks to the bottom. To find the maximum amount of sugar that can dissolve, you would need to know the solubility of sugar.Solubility of a solute is the ability of the solute to dissolve in the solvent under certain conditions: temperature of the solution, chemical nature of the solvent and volume of the solvent.
26 TemperatureSolubility of a salt in a liquid increases with an increasing temperature.Solubility of a gas in a liquid increases with decreasing temperature.
27 More solvent volume means more solute can dissolve. VolumneMore solvent volume means more solute can dissolve.
28 Solubility ValueMass of solute that can dissolve in a mass or volume of solvent at a certain temperature.
29 DefinitionsSUPERSATURATED SOLUTIONS contain more solute than is possible to be dissolvedSupersaturated solutions are unstable. The supersaturation is only temporary, and usually accomplished in one of two ways:Warm the solvent so that it will dissolve more, then cool the solutionEvaporate some of the solvent carefully so that the solute does not solidify and come out of solution.
31 Solubility curve Any point on a line represents a saturated solution. In a saturated solution, the solvent contains the maximum amount of solute.ExampleAt 90oC, 40 g of NaCl(s) in 100g H2O(l) represent a saturated solution.
32 Solubility curveAny point below a line represents an unsaturated solution.In an unsaturated solution, the solvent contains less than the maximum amount of solute.ExampleAt 90oC, 30 g of NaCl(s) in 100g H2O(l) represent an unsaturated solution. 10 g of NaCl(s) have to be added to make the solution saturated.
33 Solubility curveAny point above a line represents a supersaturated solution.In a supersaturated solution, the solvent contains more than the maximum amount of solute. A supersaturated solution is very unstable and the amount in excess can precipitate or crystallize.ExampleAt 90oC, 50 g of NaCl(s) in 100g H2O(l) represent a supersaturated solution. Eventually, 10 g of NaCl(s) will precipitate.
34 How are Mixtures and Compounds Different? Mixtures are:Made of two or more substances mixed togetherSubstances keep their own propertiesCan be separated by physical meansHave no definite chemical composition
35 Compounds are… Made of two or more substances chemically combined Substances lose their own propertiesCan be separated only by chemical meansHave a definite chemical composition
36 InferWhen a certain poisonous gas is combined with a flammable metal, a fine white powder results. The powder is neither flammable nor poisonous. Is the powder a mixture or a compound? How do you know?
37 AnswerCompoundThe substances lost their properties.