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Elements, Compounds and Mixtures

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Presentation on theme: "Elements, Compounds and Mixtures"— Presentation transcript:

1 Elements, Compounds and Mixtures

2 Pure Substances: Elements and Compounds

3 Heterogeneous Mixture
Classification of Matter Chart Matter Mixture Pure Substance Homogeneous Mixture Element Compound Heterogeneous Mixture

4 Pure Substance Substance made of one material and has definite properties Particles of a substance are all alike Same throughout

5 Elements Simplest form of a pure substance
Compound Elements Pure Substance Simplest form of a pure substance Cannot be changed into a simpler substance by any chemical process Found on periodic table

6 Elements Atom Smallest particle of an element
Compound Elements Pure Substance Atom Smallest particle of an element Basic building block of matter

7 Compound Pure substances made of more than one element
2 or more elements chemically combined

8 Two Elements Combine to form…
Sodium: extremely explosive when it comes in contact with water Chlorine: a poisonous gas Combine to form…

9 … Sodium Chloride Salt!  We put it on our french fries!

10 Compound Compounds are made of molecules
Pure Substance Element Compound Compounds are made of molecules Molecule: two or more atoms bonded together Every water molecule is exactly the same 2 Hydrogens bonded to 1 Oxygen

11 Compounds … continued Not always 2 different atoms bonded together
Oxygen = element Oxygen that we breathe is a molecule O2

12 Mixture Matter that consists of two or more substances mixed together, but NOT chemically combined Substances that make up a mixture can be present in varying quantities Can be separated by physical means Methods used to separate a mixture are based on the properties of its components

13 Types of Mixtures

14 Heterogeneous Mixture
A mixture that does NOT appear to be the same throughout “least mixed” of all mixtures

15 Homogeneous Mixtures A mixture that appears to be the same throughout
“Well mixed” mixture Does NOT separate upon standing

16 Colloid A homogeneous-looking mixture in which the particles are mixed together, but NOT dissolved Has some characteristics of homogeneous mixtures (particles are evenly spread throughout) and some characteristics of heterogeneous mixtures (particles are not actually dissolved)

17 Colloid (refer to fig 4-9 on p. 92)
Actually falls somewhere between a solution (homogeneous mixture) and a suspension (heterogeneous mixture) Particles are kept permanently suspended Particles are relatively large Will NOT separate upon standing Examples: mayonnaise, toothpaste, milk, fog

18 Alloys Homogeneous solutions of metals Solid Solution
Often used in jewelry Example – brass: alloy of copper and zinc, Gold jewelry is an alloy of gold and copper

19 Solution Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
“best mixed” mixture Composed of solute and solvent

20 Solute Substance that is dissolved Substance that there is less of
Example: salt is the solute in salt water solution

21 Solvent Substance that does the dissolving
Substance that there is more of Example: water is the solvent in salt water solution Since water is used as the solvent most often, it is called the “universal solvent”

22 Characteristics of a Solution
Composed of a solvent and solute Particles are NOT large enough to be seen Does NOT scatter light Properties are evenly spread out (for example: color, taste, odor, etc.) Types of solutions: Fig. 4-12, p. 94

23 Properties of Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
Made up of only one kind of atom Made up for more than one atom Made up of more than one kind of molecule Cannot be broken down by chemical means Can be broken down by chemical means Can be separated by physical means Has the same properties as the atoms making it up Has different properties from the elements making it up Has same properties as the substances making it up Has the same properties throughout Has different properties throughout

24 Identify the following with as many terms as apply:
Table Salt Brass Iron Trail Mix Gold Water Sugar Mayonnaise Fog Tacos Homogeneous Mixture Element Heterogeneous Mixture Compound Colloid Alloy Solution

25 Answers Table Salt – compound Brass – homogeneous mixture, alloy
Iron – element Trail Mix – heterogeneous mixture Gold – element Water – compound Sugar – compound Mayonnaise – homogeneous mixture, colloid Fog – homogeneous mixture, colloid Tacos – heterogeneous mixture

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