Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Africa and the Middle East Ch. 30. African Independence Africa in early 1900s.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Africa and the Middle East Ch. 30. African Independence Africa in early 1900s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Africa and the Middle East Ch. 30

2 African Independence Africa in early 1900s

3 African Independence Africa today

4 Independence Gained European rule starts to end after WW II England and France no $ to support colonies Ghana, 1 st nation to gain independence Led by Kwame Nkrumah 17 more independent nations in 1960

5 Independence problems France fought to maintain control in Algeria National Liberation Front (FLN) fought guerilla war to win freedom – granted in 1962 (after 8 years) South Africa African National Congress (ANC) fights for black equality – Nelson Mandela Apartheid pushed by Afrikaners (Dutch) Desmond Tutu, F.W. de Klerk

6 With New Independence Comes… Economic questions – Kenya and Congo = capitalism – Tanzania, Ghana, Guinea = African socialism – Dependent on exports (Liberia/rubber, Nigeria/oil) Pan-Africanism (unity of all black Africans) Led by Nkrumah and Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya) Hunger (Ethiopia, Sudan) AIDS (2/3 of global total in sub- Saharan Africa) Poverty (3/4 of people live off land; drought) Civil War (Nigeria, Rwanda)

7 Society and Culture African cities look a lot like western cities Rural areas missing modern amenities After independence women allowed to vote and run for office Still lack range of career options Rural areas – traditional attitudes (arranged marriages, etc.) Art = balance between tradition and western Chinua Achebe (Things Fall Apart) – influence of western culture on traditional African village

8 Middle East Conflicts a go-go

9 Palestine Pre-WWII Palestine home to Arabs Zionists wanted Palestine as home for Jews 1948, state of Israel created by United Nations (failed invasion by Arab nations) Arabs still claim land as their own and refuse Israel’s right to exist

10 Nasser and Pan-Arabism In Egypt, Britain and France controlled the Suez Canal In 1956 Gamal Abdel Nasser (leader of Egypt) took it back Britain, France, and Israel attacked to get control – Egypt was backed by US and USSR With new power, Nasser promoted Pan-Arabism Concerns over oil profit-sharing led to failure of united Arab state

11 Arab-Israeli Conflict Six Day War (1967) Israel vs. Arab Nations, over in…6 days Israel took control of Golan Heights, West Bank and Sinai Peninsula Egypt leads attack in 1973 (new president Anwar el- Sadat) War led to rise in oil prices set by OPEC 1977 peace treaty – Camp David Accords (Egypt and Israel, with Pres. Jimmy Carter mediating)

12 Further Arab-Israel Stuff Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) – led by Yasir Arafat Terrorist attacks against Israel Intifada occurred in 1980s and early 2000s (militant uprising) Some agreements made but slow in progress

13 Iran In 1950s-1970s under leadership of US- supported Shah (leader) Muslims opposed westernization Led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini 1979 Islamic Revolution – take US Hostages Poor Iran-US relations since

14 Iraq Saddam Hussein takes over in 1979 Attacks Iran in 1980 (war ends in 1988, US supported Iraq) Invades Kuwait in 1990 US leads attack against Iraq (1 st Persian Gulf War)

15 Afghanistan Developed close ties with USSR ($ help) Internal fighting to overthrow communism led to USSR invasion 1979 US supports Afghani resistance – USSR leaves in 1989 Taliban takes over (human rights violations) US invades and drives out Taliban – now looking for terrorists (Osama bin Laden)

16 Society and Culture Islamic law, Islamic militants – Sadat assassinated in 1981 – Terrorism Women’s roles – Oppressive by western standards (used to be relaxed and open for women) Literature – More secular (non-spiritual) writings – Naguib Mahfouz (Cairo Trilogy) – shows changes in Arab family as well as in Egypt

Download ppt "Africa and the Middle East Ch. 30. African Independence Africa in early 1900s."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google