3 Agenda Importance of outlining speeches Differences between the preparation outline and the speaking outlineConstruct a preparation outline following the guidelines in the textConstruct a speaking outline following the guidelines in the text
4 Preview Definition of the Preparation Outline Guidelines for the Preparation OutlineDefinition of the Speaking OutlineGuidelines for the Speaking Outline
5 What is the preparation outline? A detailed outline developed during the stage of speech preparation.
6 Preparation Outline Helps you put your speech together Stage at which you decide:how you will organize main points and supporting material in the body,what you will say in the introduction, andwhat you will say in the conclusion.
7 Guidelines for the Preparation Outline State the specific purposeIdentify the central ideaState your method of organizationLabel the introduction, body, and conclusion (Outline them separately.)
8 Guidelines for the Preparation Outline, cont. Use a consistent pattern of symbolization and indentation.State main points and 1st level subpoints (A, B, C etc.) in full sentences.Label transitions, internal summaries, and internal previews.Attach a bibliography.Give your speech a title, if desired.
9 Visual FrameworkThe pattern of symbolization and indentation in a speech outline that shows the relationship among a speaker’s ideas.
10 Example of Visual Framework I. Main pointSubpoint1. Sub-subpoint2. Sub-subpointII. Main point Subpoint
11 Speaking OutlineA brief outline used to jog a speaker’s memory during the presentation of a speech.
12 Guidelines for the Speaking Outline Eye contactBreatheFollow the visual framework used in the preparation outline.Make sure the outline is plainly legible.Keep the outline as brief as possible.Give yourself cues for delivering the speech.Slow downLower pitchShow 1st vis aidMove left of podiumLook to far rightPause for emphasis
13 Outlining the Speech Outlines Are Essential To Effective Speeches Help Place Related Items TogetherHelp Ensure The Natural Flow Of Ideas From One To AnotherHelp Create Coherent Structure
14 Outlining the Speech The Preparation Outline A Detailed Outline Used To Plan A Speech
15 OUTLINING THE SPEECHTitleSpecific PurposeCentral IdeaIntroductionConnectivesMain Points – in full declarative sentencesSupporting Points – in full declarative sentencesConclusionBibliographyProcess of Building The Preparation Outline Brings Together All Of The Major Elements Of The Speech
16 Outlining the SpeechGUIDELINES FOR CREATING THE PREPARATION OUTLINE
17 State The Specific Purpose Of Your Speech OUTLINING THE SPEECHSpecific Purpose The Speaker's Goal -- What The Speaker Hopes To AccomplishCentral IdeaWhat The Speaker Expects To Say --One Clear, Concise, Full Declarative Thesis StatementState The Specific Purpose Of Your SpeechIdentify The Central Idea
18 Label The Introduction, Body, & Conclusion OUTLINING THE SPEECHLabel The Introduction, Body, & ConclusionUse A Consistent Pattern Of Symbolization And IndentationFollow a clear Visual Framework.Visual FrameworkThe pattern of symbolization and indentation in a speech outline that shows the relationships among the ideas of the speech.
19 State Main Points And Sub-Points In FULL DECLARATIVE SENTENCES. OUTLINING THE SPEECHFULL DECLARATIVE SENTENCESThis is a Formal Sentence Outline.State Main Points And Sub-Points In FULL DECLARATIVE SENTENCES.Label Transitions, Internal Previews, Internal Summaries, & Signposts
20 Give Your Speech A Title, If One Is Desired OUTLINING THE SPEECHBibliographyA list of all the sources used in preparing a speech.Attach A BibliographyGive Your Speech A Title, If One Is Desired
21 The Speaking Outline OUTLINING THE SPEECH A Brief Outline Used To Deliver The Speech
22 OUTLINING THE SPEECH The Speaking Outline Primary Purpose: To help the speaker remember what to say
23 Particularly Effective For Extemporaneous Delivery OUTLINING THE SPEECHKey Words & PhrasesCues For DeliveryParticularly Effective For Extemporaneous DeliveryKey Words & PhrasesReduce Main & Sub Points to one to three words per point.Cues For DeliveryDirections in a speaking outline to help a speaker remember how she or he wants to deliver key parts of the speech.Extemporaneous DeliveryCarefully Prepared & Rehearsed In Advanced
24 GUIDELINES FOR CREATING THE SPEAKING OUTLINE OUTLINING THE SPEECHGUIDELINES FOR CREATING THE SPEAKING OUTLINE
25 Should Be Plainly Legible OUTLINING THE SPEECHFollow The Same Visual Framework Used In The Preparation OutlineShould Be Plainly LegibleDo you really want to be at the lectern wondering, ''Now what on earth did I write here?''
26 Should Be As Brief As Possible OUTLINING THE SPEECHShould Be As Brief As PossibleShould Include Cues For Delivering The SpeechRemember -- only one to three words per point.''Pause!'', ''Slow Down!'', ''Breathe!'', ''Smile!''
27 Importance of Communication Class PresentationsField ResearchBusiness CommunicationsPublic Speaking
28 Fear of Public Speaking PopulationNo.1 fear=Public SpeakingFear No.2=DeathStage fright-In spotlight-unprepared-inexperienced
29 Effective Communication PreparationPracticePresence
30 Effective Communication *07/16/96Effective CommunicationPreparationresearch -non-researchformat -speak on what you know-Notes- outline main points-note cards vs. full sized paper*
31 Sample Speech Outline I. Introduction II. Body III. Conclusion Thesis support argumentsIII. Conclusionreview
32 Effective Communication Practice- practice makes perfect- revision- get time right
33 Effective Communication Presence-nervousness- fright is common-Body language-voice tone-gestures-eye contact-positive attitude
34 Things You Shouldn’t Do Read directly from notesRead directly from screenTurn back on audienceSlouch, hands in pocketsNo um, ah, you know’sNo nervous gesturesTalk too fast,Talk too quietly
35 Things You Should Do Eye contact Can glance at notes Appropriate gesturesRhetorical questions to involve audience
36 Ten Successful Tips Control the “Butterflies” Know the room- become familiar with the place of presentationKnow the audience- greet or chat with the audience before hand. It’s easier to speak to friends than to strangersKnow your material-increased nervousness is due to un-preparedness
37 Control the “Butterflies” Relaxation- relax entire body by stretching and breathing so as to ease the tensionVisualize giving your speech-Visualize yourself giving your speech from start to finish. By visualizing yourself successful, you will be successful
38 Control the “Butterflies” People want you to succeed- the audience is there to see you succeed not to failDon’t apologize- by mentioning your nervousness or apologizing, you’ll only be calling the audience’s attention to mistakes
39 Control the “Butterflies” Concentrate on your message-not the medium. Focus on the message you are trying to convey and not on your anxietiesTurn nervousness into positive energy-nervousness increases adrenaline, transform it into vitality and enthusiasm
40 Control the “Butterflies” 10. Gain experience- experience builds confidence, which is key to effective public speaking
51 The Audience Size Demographics Beliefs and Values Receptive/Antagonistic
52 Context - The Setting Indoor/Outdoor Size and Shape of Room Arrangement of SeatingEquipment AvailableLightingAcoustics
53 Understand & Define Your Purpose InformInspire / PersuadeEntertainIntroduceAcceptPay Tribute
54 Understand the Speech Making Process Choosing/Narrowing a TopicResearching TopicOrganizing Your SpeechDeveloping an OutlineRehearsing SpeechDelivering Speech
55 Choosing an Appropriate Topic Is It Important to You?Is It Important to Your Audience?Will It Hold Audience’s Attention?Is It Manageable in the Time Available?Is It Appropriate for Oral Presentation?Is It Clear?
56 This discussion provide us with the skills we need to Develop Central IdeaThis discussion provide uswith the skills we need tobe successful in life.Write a one sentence summary of speech.
57 Generate Main Idea Does It Have Logical Divisions? Are There Reasons Why It Is True?Can You Support It?
58 Narrowing a Topic - Example Protecting the EnvironmentWater Quality in My StateWell Water ProblemsUtilizing Home Well Assessments to Reduce Contamination Risk
59 Getting Topic Feedback From Members of Potential AudienceFrom FriendsFrom Family
60 Researching Topic and Finding Supporting Material Sources of Supporting MaterialTypes of Supporting MaterialTests of Supporting Material
61 Sources of Supporting Material LibrariesBooksPeriodicalsNewspapersReference MaterialsCD-ROM Data BasesGovernment Documents
62 Sources of Supporting Material (con’t) The Internet/World Wide WebSearch EnginesInfoseekYahooLycosHotBotGoogle, etc.Online Libraries
63 Types of Supporting Material Common KnowledgeDirect ObservationExamples & IllustrationsExplanations & DescriptionsDocuments
64 Tests of Supporting Material Is Information Specific?Is Source an Expert?Is Source Unbiased?Is Information Timely?
65 Tests of Supporting Material (con’t) Is Information Relevant to Point Made?Does Information Support the Point?Is Information Timely?
66 Special Considerations for Online Information In Physical Print, Quality Is Controlled by ExpertsJournals - Peer ReviewPeriodicals - EditorsPublished Texts - Editors, LibrariansOnline, Must Do Own Quality ControlBeware! Everything On the Web Is Not ALL True
67 Organizing Your Speech ChronologicalTopicalCause-EffectProblem-SolutionComparison- Contrast
68 Types of Outlines Preparation Outline Title & TopicPurposeIntroductionMain and Sub-PointsTransitionsConclusionSupport/EvidencePreliminary Outline (Rough-Draft)Main points to research
69 Types of Outlines Speaker’s Outline Introduction Main Point Support TransitionsConclusion
70 Ethics in Speech Preparation - Researching Take Accurate Notes When ResearchingRecord Complete Source CitationsCredit Source of IdeasWhen in Doubt, Cite Source
77 Types of Conclusions Summary Quotation Personal Reference Challenge to AudienceOffer Vision of the Future
78 Types of Conclusions Story Question Quotation Humor Remember what Dwight D. Eisenhower once said: “Things are more like they are now, than they have ever been before.”
79 Functions of Conclusions Summarize SpeechReemphasize Main IdeaMotivate ResponseProvide Closure
80 Methods of Delivery Manuscript Reading Memorized Impromptu Extemporaneous
81 Delivering Speech - Beginning Walk Calmly with Confidence to FrontEstablish Eye ContactSmile NaturallyDeliver Introduction
82 Delivering Speech - During Use Effective Eye ContactUse Effective LanguageUse Effective GesturesBe EnthusiasticUse Conversational StyleUse Notes As Needed
83 Delivering Speech - Ending “Frame” the SpeechPause before Returning to SeatBut Don’t Ask for QuestionsAccept Applause Graciously
84 Elements of Vocal Delivery Speech Rate and PausesVolumePitchQuality of VoicePronunciation and Articulation
85 Elements of Physical Delivery or Body Language AppearancePostureFacial ExpressionEye ContactMovementGestures
86 Rehearsing Speech Recreate Setting Practice Without Memorizing Time Speech
87 Rehearsing Speech Practice Out Loud Practice Standing Up Watch Yourself
88 Rehearsing Speech Practice Gestures Practice Eye Contact Practice Volume
89 Plan, Prepare, Polish, Practice, Present The better you know your material the less anxious you’ll be about presenting it.Smile and act natural.Don’t apologize for being nervous. No one will know you’re nervous unless you call attention to it.