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Chapter 1 Section 3 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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1 1 2 2 3 3 Exponents, Roots, and Order of Operations Use exponents. Find square roots. Use the order of operations. Evaluate algebraic expressions for given values of variables. 4 41.31.3

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Slide 1.3- 3 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Objective 1 Use exponents. Slide 1.1- 3

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Slide 1.3- 4 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. In algebra we use exponents as a way of writing products of repeated factors. The number 5 shows that 2 is used as a factor 5 times. The number 5 is the exponent, and 2 is the base. 2 5 Exponent Base

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Slide 1.3- 5 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Exponential Expression If a is a real number and n is a natural number, then a n = a a a … a, where n is the exponent, a is the base, and a n is an exponential expression. Exponents are also called powers. Slide 1.1- 5 n factors of a

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Slide 1.3- 6 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. EXAMPLE 1 Write using exponents. a. Here, is used as a factor 4 times. Slide 1.1- 6 4 factors of 2/7. Read as “2/7 to the fourth power.”

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Slide 1.3- 7 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. continued b. ( 10)(–10)(–10) c. Slide 1.1- 7 = ( 10) 3 Read as “ 10 cubed.”

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Slide 1.3- 8 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. EXAMPLE 2 Evaluate 3 4. Slide 1.1- 8 3 is used as a factor 4 times.

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Slide 1.3- 9 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. EXAMPLE 3 Evaluate. a. ( 3) 2 b. 3 2 Slide 1.1- 9 The base is 3. There are no parentheses. The exponent 2 applies only to the number 3, not to 3.

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Slide 1.3- 10 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The product of an odd number of negative factors is negative. The product of an even number of negative factors is positive. Slide 1.1- 10

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Slide 1.3- 11 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. CAUTION It is important to distinguish between a n and ( a) n. Be careful when evaluating an exponential expression with a negative sign. The base is a. The base is a. n factors of a n factors of a

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Slide 1.3- 12 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Objective 2 Find square roots. Slide 1.1- 12

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Slide 1.3- 13 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The opposite (inverse) of squaring a number is called taking its square root. The square root of 49 is 7. Another square root of 49 is 7, since ( 7) 2 = 49. Thus 49 has two square roots: 7 and 7. We write the positive or principal square root of a number with the symbol, called a radical sign.

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Slide 1.3- 14 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The negative square root of 49 is written Since the square of any nonzero real number is positive, the square root of a negative number, such as is not a real number.

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Slide 1.3- 15 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. EXAMPLE 4 Find each square root that is a real number. a.b. c. d. Slide 1.1- 15 Not a real number, because the negative sign is inside the radical sign. No real number squared equals 49.

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Slide 1.3- 16 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Objective 3 Use the order of operations. Slide 1.1- 16

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Slide 1.3- 17 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Order of Operations 1. Work separately above and below any fraction bar. 2. If grouping symbols such as parentheses ( ), brackets [ ], or absolute value bars | | are present, start with the innermost set and work outward. 3. Evaluate all powers, roots, and absolute values. 4. Multiply or divide in order from left to right. 5. Add or subtract in order from left to right. Slide 1.1- 17

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Slide 1.3- 18 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. NOTE Some students like to use the mnemonic “Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally” to help remember the rules for order of operations. Be sure to multiply or divide in order from left to right; then add or subtract in order from left to right. PleaseExcuseMyMyDearAuntSally ParenthesesExponentsMultiplyDivideAddSubtract

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Slide 1.3- 19 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. EXAMPLE 5 Simplify. a. 5 9 + 2 4 = 45 + 2 4 Multiply. = 45 + 8 Multiply. = 53 Add. b. 4 – 12 4 2 = 4 – 3 2 Divide. = 4 – 6 Multiply. = –2 Subtract. Slide 1.1- 19

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Slide 1.3- 20 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. EXAMPLE 6 Simplify. (4 + 2) – 3 2 – (8 – 3) (4 + 2) – 3 2 – (8 – 3) = 6 – 3 2 – 5 Perform operations inside parentheses. = 6 – 9 – 5 Evaluate the power. = –3 – 5 Subtract 6 – 9. = –8 Subtract. Slide 1.1- 20 3 2 = 3 ·3 not 3 · 2

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Slide 1.3- 21 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. EXAMPLE 7 Simplify. Work separately above and below the fraction bar. Slide 1.1- 21 Evaluate the root and the power. Multiply the fraction and whole number. Subtract and add in the numerator. Multiply 3(4).

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Slide 1.3- 22 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Objective 4 Evaluate algebraic expressions for given values of variables. Slide 1.1- 22

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Slide 1.3- 23 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Any sequence of numbers, variables, operation symbols, and/or grouping symbols formed in accordance with the rules of algebra is called an algebraic expression. 6ab, 5m – 9n, and 2(x 2 + 4y) We evaluate algebraic expressions by substituting given values for the variables.

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Slide 1.3- 24 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. EXAMPLE 8 Evaluate the expression if w = 4, x = –12, y = 64 and z = –3. Slide 1.1- 24 Substitute x = – 12, y = 64 and z = – 3. Work separately above and below the fraction bar.

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Slide 1.3- 25 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. continued Evaluate the expression w 2 + 2z 3 if w = 4, x = –12, y = 64 and z = –3. w 2 + 2z 3 = (4) 2 + 2(–3) 3 = 16 + 2(–27) = 16 – 54 = –38 Slide 1.1- 25 Substitute w = 4 and z = – 3. Evaluate the powers. Multiply. Subtract.

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