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1 Viral Replication and Treatment copyright cmassengale.

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1 1 Viral Replication and Treatment copyright cmassengale

2 2 Viral Attack Viruses are very specific as to which species they attack HOST specific Humans rarely share viral diseases with other animals copyright cmassengale

3 3 5 Steps of Lytic Cycle 1. Attachment to the cell 2. Penetration (injection) of viral DNA or RNA 3. Replication of new viral proteins and nucleic acids 4. Assembly of the new viruses 5. Release of the new viruses into the environment (cell lyses) copyright cmassengale

4 4 Bacteriophage Replication Bacteriophage inject their nucleic acid They lyse (break open) the bacterial cell when replication is finished copyright cmassengale

5 5 Attachment: Phage attaches to host cell. Penetration: Phage penetrates host cell and injects its DNA. Viral parts replicated 1 2 3 Bacterial cell wall Bacterial chromosome Capsid DNA Capsid Sheath Tail fiber Base plate Pin Cell wall Tail Plasma membrane Sheath contracted Tail core copyright cmassengale

6 6 4 Maturation: Viral components are assembled into virions. Tail 5 Release: Host cell lyses and new virions are released. DNA Capsid Tail fibers copyright cmassengale

7 7 Viral Latency (Lysogenic Cycle) Some viruses have the ability to become dormant inside the cell Called latent viruses They may remain inactive for long periods of time (years) Later, they activate to produce new viruses in response to some external signal (stress, exposure to sunlight etc) HIV and Herpes viruses are examples copyright cmassengale

8 Lytic vs. Lysogenic cycle

9 9 Latency in Eukaryotes Some eukaryotic viruses remain dormant for many years in the nervous system tissues Chickenpox is a childhood infection It can reappear later in life as shingles, a painful itching rash limited to small areas of the body SHINGLES copyright cmassengale

10 10 Latency in Eukaryotes Herpes viruses also become latent in the nervous system A herpes infection lasts for a person’s lifetime SKIN TO SKIN CONTACT PASSED AT BIRTH TO BABY copyright cmassengale

11 11 Vaccines An attenuated virus is a weakened, less vigorous virus A vaccine against a viral disease can be made from an attenuated, less virulent strain of the virus Attenuated virus is capable of creating immunity (makes your body respond and produce antibodies) but not causing illness There is no cure for viral infections—there are drugs to reduce the severity for some viral diseases copyright cmassengale

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