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Ch 26: Urinary System Objectives

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1 Ch 26: Urinary System Objectives
Identify and describe the components of the urinary system and their function Describe the (histological) organization of the nephron Identify the blood vessels that supply blood to the nephrons Describe the blood flow through and around the nephron

2 Functions of Urinary System (Kidneys):
Excretion of organic waste products Regulation of blood Volume pH Ion concentration

3 Kidney Location Lateral to vertebral column in retro-peritoneal position

4 Surface Anatomy Hilus Three layers Renal fascia Adipose capsule
Renal capsule

5 Sectional Anatomy Cortex: light reddish brow and granular (due to many capillaries) Medulla: darker striped appearance (due to tubules) Subdivided into distinct renal pyramids. Separated by renal columns from the cortex. Fig 26-3

6 Urine collection: Ducts within each renal papilla release urine
into minor calyx major calyx renal pelvis ureter

7 Functional unit: Nephron
(>mio/kidney) Renal corpuscle: Glomerulus Bowman’s capsule Tubular passageways: PCT LOH DCT CD Fig 26-5 Fig 26-4

8 Filtration: Passage across Three Barriers
Capillary endothelium Fenestrated What gets through? Basement membrane Glomerular epithelium (= visceral layer of Bowman’s capsule) slit pores between pedicels Fig 26-5

9 Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
Macula densa + Juxtaglomerular cells (smooth muscle fibers from afferent arteriole) = Juxtaglomerular Apparatus = Endocrine system structure (renin and EPO)

10 Cortical vs Juxtamedullary Nephrons
Cortical nephrons (85%) Juxtamedullary nephrons (15%), play keyrole in concentrating urine.

11 Renal Circulation Renal Artery Segmental arteries Renal Vein
Fig 26-7 Renal Artery Segmental arteries Interlobar arteries Arcuate arteries Interlobular arteries Afferent arterioles Glomerulus Efferent arterioles Peritubular capillaries Renal Vein Segmental veins Interlobar veins Arcuate veins Interlobular veins Venules

12 Urine Transport, Storage, and Elimination
Trace drop of urine from kidneys to outside world Lining of these parts? Nephroptosis (= floating kidneys) Nephrolithiasis

13 Transitional Epithelium
from renal pelvis to neck of urethra. full bladder empty bladder

14 Nephroptosis Upright position: 1st degree nephroptosis:
Supine position

15 Nephrolithiasis occurs when urine becomes too concentrated and substances crystalize. Symptoms arise when stones begin to move down ureter causing intense pain. Kidney stones may form in the pelvis or calyces of the kidney or in the ureter.

16 Anatomy of Urinary Bladder
max. holding capacity: 1l Detrusor muscle: • inner longitudinal • middle circular • outer longitudinal

17 Male versus Female UTIs (esp. E.coli)

18 The End Kidneys may sustain 90% loss of nephrons and still not show apparent symptoms!!! 2-4 % of population only have 1 kidney! Manneken Pis Fountain Brussels, 1619

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