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Prokaryotes, Viruses, and Protistans

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Presentation on theme: "Prokaryotes, Viruses, and Protistans"— Presentation transcript:

1 Prokaryotes, Viruses, and Protistans
Chapter 20

2 Microorganisms Single-celled organisms that are too small to be seen without a microscope Bacteria are the smallest living organisms Viruses are smaller but are not alive

3 The Prokaryotes Only two groups Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
Arose before the eukaryotes

4 Prokaryotic Characteristics
No membrane-bound nucleus Single chromosome Cell wall in most species Prokaryotic fission Metabolic diversity

5 Prokaryotic Body Plan pilus DNA bacterial flagellum
ribosomes in cytoplasm plasma membrane capsule cell wall

6 Bacterial Shapes coccus bacillus spirillum

7 Archaebacteria Methanogens Extreme halophiles Extreme thermophiles

8 Eubacteria Includes most familiar bacteria
Have fatty acids in plasma membrane Most have cell wall; always includes peptidoglycan Classification based largely on metabolism

9 Bacterial Genes Bacteria have a single chromosome
Circular molecule of DNA Many bacteria also have plasmids Self-replicating circle of DNA that has a few genes Can be passed from one cell to another

10 Prokaryotic Fission

11 Conjugation nicked plasmid in donor cell conjugation tube
to recipient cell Conjugation

12 Virus Noncellular infectious agent
Consists of protein wrapped around a nucleic acid core Cannot reproduce itself; can only be reproduced using a host cell

13 Viral Body Plans Genetic material is DNA or RNA Coat is protein
Complex virus (bacteriophage) Helical virus Polyhedral virus

14 Enveloped Virus (HIV) lipid envelope; proteins span the envelope, line its inner surface, spike out above it viral coat (proteins)

15 Viral Multiplication - Basic Steps
Virus attaches to host cell Whole virus or genetic material enters host Viral DNA or RNA directs host to make viral genetic material and protein Viral nucleic acids and proteins are assembled New viral particles are released from cell

16 Lytic Pathway Lysis Assembly Assembly Virus injects genetic material
Production of viral components

17 Lysogenic Pathway Latent period extends the cycle
Stimulus may cause cell to enter lytic pathway Latent period extends the cycle Viral DNA becomes part of host chromosome for a time Viral material passed on Viral material integrated

18 Replication of an Enveloped Virus
Transcription of viral genes Translation DNA replication Proteins Assembly

19 Viroids Smaller than viruses Strands or circles of RNA
No protein-coding genes No protein coat Cause many plant diseases

20 Prions Small proteins Linked to human diseases Animal diseases Kuru
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) Animal diseases Scrapie in sheep Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease)

21 Protistans Differ from Prokaryotes
Have a nucleus and organelles Have proteins associated with DNA Use microtubules in a cytoskeleton, spindle apparatus, and cilia and flagella May contain chloroplasts May divide by mitosis and meiosis

22 Sporozoans Parasitic Complete part of the life cycle inside specific cells of a host organism Many have elaborate life cycles that require different hosts Many cause serious human disease

23 Cryptosporidium (Giardia)
Motile infective stage (sporozoite) invades intestinal epithelium Causes cramps, watery diarrhea Commonly transmitted by water contaminated with cysts

24 Toxoplasma Cysts may be ingested with raw or undercooked meat
Exposure to cysts from cat feces Symptoms are usually mild in people with normal immune function Infection during pregnancy can kill or damage the embryo

25 Malaria Symptoms have been known for more than 2,000 years
Most prevalent in tropical and subtropical parts of Africa Kills a million Africans each year Caused by four species of Plasmodium Transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes

26 Plasmodium Life Cycle sporozites sporozites Gametes form
in mosquito gut, combine to form zygotes merozoite Offspring enter blood, cause malarial symptoms Male and female gametocytes in blood

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