7 2. PopulationGroup of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical areaEx: Cow in a field
8 3. CommunityAll of the populations of species that live in the same habitat & interact with one another.Ex. Cows, grass, birds, ants, bacteria, etc. in a field
9 4. Ecosystem A community of organisms and their abiotic environment. Ex. Cows, grass, bees, ants, nutrients, air, soil, precipitation, temperature, in a field
10 5. BiospherePart of Earth where life exists. Extends from the deepest parts of the ocean to high in the air.
11 Recap QuestionsWhat is the study of the interactions of organisms with one another and with their environment?EcologyWhat are all the living organisms in an environment called?BioticWhat are all the nonliving parts in an environment called?Abiotic
12 Recap QuestionsName the 5 levels of the environment from smallest to largest.Organism, Population, Community, Ecosystem, BiosphereWhat is a community of organisms and their abiotic environment?EcosystemWhat are all of the populations of species that live in the same habitat & interact with one another?Community
13 Interactions of Living Things Chapter 1, Section 2: Living Things Need Energy
14 EnergyOrganisms obtain energy in a variety of ways. There are 3 groups individuals based upon the way they accumulate energy:
15 1. ) ProducersProducers - are organisms that make their own food using sunlight in a process is called photosynthesis.Examples: plants, algae, bacteria
16 2.) ConsumersConsumers - Organisms that eat other organisms.
17 Four Types of Consumers: A.) Herbivores- only eat plantsExamples: Rabbit , Guinea pig, Sheep
18 Four Types of Consumers: B.) Carnivores- only eat animals.Examples:Coyote, Cheetah, Tiger
19 Four Types of Consumers: C.) Omnivores- eat both plants and animalsExamples:HumansSkunksPigs
20 Four Types of Consumers: D.) Scavengers- eat dead plants and animalsExamples:VultureCrab
29 The green arrows show how energy moves when one organism eats another The green arrows show how energy moves when one organism eats another. Most consumers eat a variety of foods and can be eaten by a variety of other consumers.
30 DO NOW – Match the term with the definition. Organisms that eat only meatAnother word for heterotrophsAll of the populations that live in the same habitat & interact with one anotherA community of organisms and their abiotic environmentOrganisms that eat only producersEHerbivoresConsumersCarnivoresCommunityEcosystemBACD
32 Energy Pyramid Energy pyramid shows an ecosystem’s loss of energy. The most amount of energy is found at the bottom of an energy pyramid.
33 Energy PyramidAs you travel up the pyramid there is less energy left from the original source.Less energy is available at higher levels because only energy stored in the tissues of an organism can be transferred to next level.
35 The pyramid represents energy The pyramid represents energy. As you can see, more energy is available at the base of the pyramid than at its top.
36 Producers, Consumers, Decomposers Recap QuestionsWhat are the 3 main groups that obtain energy?Producers, Consumers, DecomposersWhat are organisms that get energy by breaking down dead organisms?DecomposersWhat are organisms that make their own food using sunlight during photosynthesis?Producers
37 Herbivore, Carnivore, Omnivore, Scavenger Recap QuestionsWhat are organisms that eat other organisms?ConsumersWhat are the 4 types of consumers?Herbivore, Carnivore, Omnivore, ScavengerWhat is a diagram that shows how energy in food flows from one organism to another? ]Food ChainWhat shows all of the different possibilities of energy flow between different organisms?Food Web
38 Interactions of Living Things Chapter 1, Section 3: Types of Interactions
39 Habitat An organism’s habitat is the area in which it lives. Example: A frog lives in a pond
40 Niche The organism’s way of life, is called their niche. This includes their habitat, food, and the abiotic factors that affect them such as temperature and weather.
41 Interactions with the Environment Populations affect every other populationMost living things produce more offspring than will survive (ex: frog eggs)Biotic and abiotic factors affect survival rate and controls the size of the population
42 Interactions with the Environment Populations cannot grow without resources.There is a limited amount of resources such as food, water, living space.Limiting Factors - a resource that is so necessary that it limits the size of the population.Any resource can be a limiting factor!
46 Carrying CapacityThe largest population that an environment can support at any given time.When a population growslarger than carrying capacity,limiting factors causeindividuals to leave or die off.**The population will eventually return to a size that the environment can support**
48 Interactions between Organisms Four main ways that species and individuals affect each other:CompetitionPredators and preySymbiotic RelationshipsCo-evolution
49 1.) CompetitionWhen 2 or more individuals or populations try to use the same resource.Resources have a limited supply, therefore the use by one decreases the availability for others.Happens within populations or betweenpopulations
50 2.) Predators and Prey Prey – is an organism that is eaten Have methods & abilities to keep from being eatenRunTravel in groupsCamouflage or ColorationPoisonousPredator – is an organism that eats the preyThey have methods to catch their preySpeedAmbushColoration
51 CamouflageCamouflage - blending in with the background
53 Warning ColorsWarning coloration - colors that associate with pain or illnesses.Bright red, yellow, orange, black and white
54 3.) SymbiosisRelationship in which two different organisms live in close association with each other.Can benefit from, be unaffected by or harmed by the relationship.3 Groups:MutualismCommensalismParasitism
55 ++ Mutualism Symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit Examples:Bacteria in yourintestinesCoral and algae
56 CommensalismSymbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected.+ 0Example:Sharks and remoras (remoras “hitch a ride” and feed on scraps left by sharks and sharks are unaffected)
57 ParasitismSymbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and one is harmed. (+ -)Parasite = organism that benefitsHost = organism that is harmedParasite gets nourishment from host while host is weakened or sometimes killed.Example:Ticks, tapeworms, tomato hornworm, etc
58 4.) CoevolutionThe evolution of two species that is due to mutual influence, often in a way that makes the relationship more beneficial to both species.Relationships between organisms change over time and interactions can change the organismTakes place between any organisms that live close together, but happens over long periods of time
59 Coevolution & FlowersPollination is necessary for reproduction of plantsPollinator- Organism that carries pollen from one flower to another.Example: Bees, bats, hummingbirds, etcFlowers have changed to attract pollinatorsExample: Color, odor or nectar
60 Recap QuestionsWhat is a resource that is so necessary that it limits the size of the population?Limiting FactorWhat is the largest population that an environment can support at any given time?Carrying CapacityWhat type of interaction is it when an organism gets eaten by another organism?Predator and Prey
61 Recap QuestionsWhat type of interaction is it when 2 or more individuals or populations try to use the same resource?CompetitionSkunks, bees, frogs fend off their predators by what?Defensive ChemicalsWhat type of interaction is it when two different organisms live in close association with each other?Symbiosis