Scientific Processes Your Name Your Period January 2012
Writing a Problem To design an experiment, you have to have a reason for it. The problem you wish to investigate should be written as a question. The problem should not be answered by a yes or no.
Definition of Observation An observation is a statement made by the use of your five senses. An example of an observation is: First hour science class has enough desks for 24 students.
Qualitative Observations The definition of qualitative observations are those observations that do not include numbers. An example of a qualitative observation is: The classroom walls are blue.
Quantitative Observations The definition of quantitative observations is that they are observations that include numbers. An example of a quantitative observation is: There are 7 yellow folders on the cabinets in room 44B.
Developing a Hypothesis An hypothesis is a possible explanation for a problem. Make an educated guess. Make a prediction: If….., then….. i.e. If students do not wash their hands daily, then they will get more respiratory illnesses.
Inferences The definition of an inference is that it is an attempted explanation of an observation. An example of an inference: Students come in to 44B classroom very quickly third hour because they have classes nearby. The above inference was based on the observation that room 44b fills up very fast third hour.
Inferences, continued A reasonable inference is based on a correct explanation of the observation. An example of a reasonable inference is: Observation: The soap dispenser is empty. Reasonable Inference: The students are washing their hands frequently.
Inferences, continued An unreasonable inference is not based on a correct explanation of the observation. An example of an unreasonable inference is: Observation: The soap dispenser is empty. Unreasonable Inference: The students are using the soap for hand cream.
Independent Variables These are things that are known. These are put on the X axis of a graph. These are almost ALWAYS first in a data table. Location CJHSDay 2 coloniesDay 3 colonies 44B door handle Water fountain Nurses office push handle Underside cafeteria tray Push area of sanitizer-- cafeteria
Dependent Variables These are what you dont know. These change when they (the independent variable) change. Dependent variables depend on the independent variable. Dependent variables are on the Y axis in a graph and fill the other columns of the data table.
Developing a Procedure How to do the experiment… Write short, easy to follow steps. Start each step with a verb….measure or time or pour or get or use, etc. Write very simple instructions that anyone could follow.
Collecting/Organizing Data You collect data on the dependent variable (which you plot on the Y axis) Make your data table easy to read. Your independent variable should be the first column in your data table. Your dependent variable should be the second (and maybe third) column in your data table. Do many trials.
Results Use math to explain: mean, median, mode and range of your collected data if you have more than 10 or so data numbers. Draw a graph to show relationship of dependent variable to dependent variable.
Conclusion State if the hypothesis was supported OR if the hypothesis was NOT supported.