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Fluid & Chemical Balance

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Presentation on theme: "Fluid & Chemical Balance"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fluid & Chemical Balance
NF CHPT 15 Fluid & Chemical Balance

2 The Body’s Fluids Water is the most important solvent in the body
Water transports wastes Water carries nutrients Water lubricates joints Water acts as a shock absorber Water needs to be replaced and maintained daily

3 Water Makes up 50-60% of our body wt
Best source of water is drinking water Water also comes from liquids and foods

4 2 compartments body fluid is in…
Intracellular Extracellular

5 Intracellular Fluid The fluid that is inside the cells

6 Extracellular Fluid Water that is outside the cells



9 Electrolytes Are chemical compounds that are dissolved, absorbed and distributed in body fluids Electrolytes carry an electrical charge Na+ K+ CL- are all electrolytes

10 Normal electrolyte levels
Na+ should be meq/L K+ should be meq/L Know these for ever……………

11 IMBALANCE When electrolytes become unbalanced, the body tries to balance it out to return it to a homeostatic state

12 BLOOD Consists of: 3 liters of plasma 2 liters of blood cells _____
Total of 5 liters

13 Blood cells For every 500 RBC’s (carry stuff)
There are platelets (to clot blood) There is WBC Loss of blood means you must replace it with fluid or actual blood transfusion

14 OSMOSIS Helps to keep water and the stuff in it, =
Water moves from an area of less concentration of particles to an area of higher concentration of particles to help spread those particles out and dilute the stuff

15 FILTRATION Like a coffee filter
Your kidneys filter out water and waste through the glomerulous (kidney’s filter) from the hydrostatic pressure behind that water and waste…the water and waste gets pushed out through this kidney filter

16 DIFFUSION When “stuff” moves from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration (think of the room deodorizer spray) Like the room spray, it’s really concentrated coming out of the can then I spray it in the air and the smell diffuses or moves to the other side of the room

17 PASSIVE DIFFUSION Doesn’t require any energy to do this, it just moves by itself What kind of energy?????? 

18 ACTIVE TRANSPORT Like salmon swimming up stream, this requires ATP=energy to help push it through This goes from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration Na+ and K+ do this in a “pump system” when they are regulating themselves in the kidneys

19 FLUID REGULATION Our body regulates fluids through the kidneys
We loose fluids in several ways… Fluid loss needs to be watched and replaced then maintained daily

20 Monitoring Intake & Output
Keep a record of what goes in and what comes out…legal document Keep this record over a 24 hour period Dr. or IVFs determines who needs I&Os watched

21 Measuring I&O Measured in ml or cc and recorded on I & O sheet
Totaled at end of shifts and grand totaled at end of day Should be compared with previous levels Includes all routes of Intake and Output

22 Who is on I&Os Surgical pt is monitored until they are eating and drinking and voiding normal Pt receiving IVFs Pt receiving tube feeds, what goes in and what comes out must be watched

23 Who is on I&Os Pt with wound drainage or suction equipment
Pt who has a urinary catheter Pt who is on diuretic therapy such as lasix or aldactone or hydrochlorothiozide. They are releasing extra body water with these medications

24 KEEPING TRACK You must use your facilities I&O record
I&O should be done EVERY SHIFT usually at 6am-3pm-12midnight and start again at 6am

25 What is fluid intake exactly?
1) It’s the sum of all fluid that the pt took in, it includes: 2)All liquids the pt drank 3)Melted ice chips, the total amt cut in ½ 4)Foods that are liquid by the time they are swallowed like ice cream, jello (gelatin), thin cooked cereal 5)IVFs 6)Feeding tube liquids

26 What to measure? Fluids Ice chips Certain foods Tube feeding
IVs and IV Meds Irrigations Urine Diarrhea Emesis Drainage Blood Aspirated Irrigation fluids

27 How to record fluid in… ALWAYS recorded in ml…
If a pt drank 8oz glass of water, how many cc or ml is this? Remember that 30mL or cc =1ounce

28 EQUIVALENTS 1 ounce = 30cc or mL 1 tsp = 5cc or mL 1 Tbsp = 15cc or mL
8ounces = 240cc or mL

29 Check the labels Food labels indicate how many ounces it contains
Facility may have little chart of popcicle =? Water glass = ? 4 oz jello = ?

30 FLUID OUTPUT What liquids do you count as output? Urine emesis
Blood loss diarrhea Wound or tube drainage Aspirated drainage such as NG output The wt of a chux pad or diaper must be counted

31 How will you know if the patient has had enough in and enough out?
#1 check with what Dr. wants Patient’s with normal kidney function should urinate 30mLs/hr Children should urinate 10-15mLs/hr Usually what goes in should come out. Dr. starts initial IV order so be calculating



34 Let’s do a problem INTAKE (I’s) 6 ounces of juice in for breakfast
2 ounces of milk in for breakfast 8 ounces water in for lunch 16 ounces pop in for dinner How many mLs did this pt take in

35 OUTPUT (O’s) 350mLs in a.m. 220mLs at noon 530mLs H.S. How many mLs out did the pt have

36 What’s wrong with this picture?

37 FLUID IMBALANCES Due to: water or fluid movement or
water or fluid loss

38 HYPOVOLEMIA Low volume in the extracellular compartments Due to:
1) Inadequate fluid intake 2) Fluid loss in excess of fluid intake like vomiting 3) 3rd spacing 4) injury such as an amputated limb in MVA

39 Treatment of hypovolemia
Replacement of fluids by oral or IV Oral when not severe IVFs when loss is severe If due to 3rd spacing, may need protein (albumin) so that water will follow protein back into the blood vessels

40 HYPERVOLEMIA Too much water in = edema
Fluid goes to dependent places like feet Pitting edema is extreme fluid overload Edema doesn’t occur unless the body has 3 liters over what it needs

41 Treatment of hypervolemia
If untreated, circulatory failure will occur because there is too much fluid for the heart to pump around…drown Treatment includes…

42 Treatment of hypervolemia
Treat the disorder causing the overload, if it’s the slow heart, meds to increase the pumping action of the heart are needed Reduce or limit oral intake Reduce salt, where salt goes, water… Stop IVFs Administer drugs to release water like lasix, hydrochlorothiazide or aldactone Use a combination of all of these

43 Lasix (furosemide) Diuretic – people call this a “water pill”
Side Effects: can work too much = dehydration Hypokalemia = change in heart rhythm called a dysrhythmia (bad heart beat) Decrease BP So now you’ll have dizzy, confusion, nausea

44 Third spacing Remember low proteins caused lots of water to move out of the cells and into the other spaces because there was no protein to follow? Causes swelling, can lead to hypotension and shock, your body thinks it has no fluid because it’s NOT in the right places

45 Treatment of 3rd spacing
An infusion of albumin which is protein found in plasma (plasma is the fluid in blood, cytoplasm-like jelly with waste and electrolytes in it). The water will move back in to the spaces to follow the albumin then you can take the water and albumin out with lasix Pt will urinate a lot

46 Intravenous Solutions
Their purpose is to: Maintain or restore fluid balance when pt can’t take p.o. To maintain or replace electrolytes To provide a source of calories

47 Names of some IVFs Normal saline 0.9% NS Dextrose 5% + water D5W
5% Dextrose+ .45% NS D5 1/2 NS 5% Dextrose + .45%NS + 20Kmeq KCL D5 1/2% NS+20meqKCL

48 REMEMBER… If you forgot to record it, IT WASN”T DONE
Don’t be lazy and forget to do all of your job 


50 The End

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