Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Ch 19 The Renaissance and the Reformation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Ch 19 The Renaissance and the Reformation
2 Reopening the Silk Road When the silk road reopened (due to the Mongls) trade increasedMarco Polo brought back information on China to the people of Europe, igniting a desire to have more Asian goodsTrade cities in Italy ( Florence, Milan, and Venice) became very wealthy as a result of the increased trade.
3 The Desire to Know Christianity ruled Europe during the Middle Ages The Church ran schools and universities where the main subject taught was religionOne of the challenges facing the church was the desire of people to want to know who, what, where and why and not always be told the answer would relate to religionInspired by Humanism, Key historical figures stepped into importance
4 Niccolo Machiavelli Italian writer and politician Interested in what really happened, not theoriesSets a good example of Renaissance interest in human behavior and societyIn The Prince he offered advise to how ruler should stay in powerFear vs Loved
5 Michelangelo One of the greatest Italian Masters He designed buildings, wrote poetry, carved sculptures and painted magnificent paintingsRenowned for painting the ceiling of the Sistine chapelSelf portrait
6 Leonardo da Vinci A true genius of the Renaissance Age Painter, sculptor, inventor, engineer, town planner, map makerUse real specimens whenever possible to be as accurate as he could
7 “Rebirth” was being experienced throughout Europe Around the continent new ideas and advances were sprouting all over in the form ofMathHumanismAstronomyReligious reform
8 Advances in math lead to MathematicsSquare roots, positive and negative integers all created during this timeAdvances in math lead toEngineers and architects creating formulas to strengthen buildingsStudying astronomy to learn more about the sun, stars and planets. This lead to the discovery that the Earth revolved around the sun. (controversial) Why?These findings challenged traditional church beliefs.Galileo Galilei invented the telescope and was able to prove this. Some of his body parts are on display in italyGalileo
9 —Francesco Petrarch, from a 1366 letter to Boccaccio Changes in EducationHistory became important in education once humanism became a more popular subjectThe Renaissance scholar Petrarch warned against ignoring history.“O inglorious age! that scorns antiquity, its mother, to whom it owes every noble art… What can be said in defense of men of education who ought not to be ignorant of antiquity [ancient times] and yet are plunged in…darkness and delusion?”—Francesco Petrarch, from a 1366 letter to Boccaccio
10 Germany – Johann Gutenberg 1456 Gutenberg printed the Bible in Latin and it was later translated into other languages.Why was this so monumental?
11 Universities Opened all over Europe Spreading Renaissance Ideas In Northern Europe, Christian humanism spread as a subject in the universities.As more and more people gained access to the bible, they came to feel that the church was corruptDesiderius Erasmus was a voice for reformHe criticized corrupt clergy and emphasized devotion to God and the teachings of Jesus.
12 Painting and Literature The paintings during the Renaissance became more realisticOne Artist study the anatomy of the human body to make his work more realisticAlbrecht DurerWilliam Shakespeare is considered the greatest writer in the English languageRomeo and Juliet
13 ReformationUnpopular church practices, corrupt clergy, sale of indulgences and other issues motivated some to try and reform the Catholic churchOn October 31, 1517 Martin Luther nailed the 95 thesis to the door of a church in Wittenberg, Germany.Luther wanted to correct the church’s mistakes by calling them out.Instead of changing, the church kicked him out and called him a heretic,His ideas would eventually lead to another split in the Catholic ChurchThose who followed Luther became known as Protestants or LutheransRoman CatholicOrthodox CatholicProtestant
14 Other ReformersWilliam Tynndale – an English professor who thought that everyone should be able to read and interpret the BibleThis went against the teachings of the Catholic Church which held that only clergy should have this right.John Calvin – believed in the idea of predestinationKing Henry VIII – broke from the Catholic Church because they did not allow him to divorce his wife. The Anglican Church, as it came to be known, is VERY similar to the Catholic Church.
15 The Catholic Reformation The Catholic Church decided they needed to stop the spread of the Protestant faith.In Spain the Spanish Inquisition was responsible for making all of Spain CatholicA religious order known as the Jesuits was created to serve the Pope and the ChurchThe Council of Trent was a meeting to discuss ways to improve the Catholic faith, but instead it became a way to limit peoples exposure to Protestant information, like books.More Catholic missionaries were sent out to gain more followers of the Catholic faith around the world.
16 The Political ImpactIn France religious wars began between the French Catholics and the French protestants also known as HuguenotsThe conflict lasted for decades until King Henry IV issued the Edict of Nantes, a law granting religious freedom in most of FranceIn the Holy Roman Empire wars broke out after the emperor forced everyone in his kingdom to be Catholic, Protestants revolted causing what came to be known as the Thirty Years WarA peace agreement that came in the 1648, The Treaty of Westphalia, allowed rulers to determine whether their country would be Protestant or Catholic.
17 Social Changes Some Results of the Reformation With the reformation, Protestants had to run their own church’s. The Clergy only worked for the CatholicOnce people started to govern their own churches, many decided they also wanted some sort of say in the government as wellSome congregations gained enough power that they began to share it with the local governmentThat is how the idea of Federalism came to be.This sparked the desire for people to want to know more based on their knowledge, not trust in someone in authority telling you.Some Results of the ReformationReligious conflicts spread across EuropeChurch leaders reform the Catholic ChurchMissionaries spread Catholicism around the worldNorthern Europe becomes largely ProtestantLocal Protestant churches practice self-government