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Diet During Childhood & Adolescence

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Presentation on theme: "Diet During Childhood & Adolescence"— Presentation transcript:

1 Diet During Childhood & Adolescence
Nutrition CHPT 13 Diet During Childhood & Adolescence

2 Inadequate Diets Studies show that mental ability and size of an individual are directly influenced by nutrition in the early years

3 Children ages 1-2 years old
Children learn by imitation at this age The parents are the role models for their children Good habits must be enforced starting from this early of an age

4 Mealtime Should be in an enjoyable environment that is calm and relaxed Nutritious foods should be available at all times, snacks should be provided All meals should include a wide variety of foods to to ensure good intake

5 Picky eaters The picky group…
Kids at this age have varying appetites, likes and dislikes they call this “food jags” Wt gain of a child during the 2nd year of life is only 5 pounds

6 “NO!” Children at 2 y.o want to decide things for themselves
They need guidance, not whatever they want Encourage high nutrient dense foods, stay away from sweets, this becomes habit

7 Milk Whole milk is recommended until age 2 because kids of this age don’t eat a lot of food Low fat milk is recommended after age 2 Fat is necessary for growth, not fat-laden junk food

8 Salt intake Watch the added salt, there should be known for children of this age Keep foods high in sodium off of their diet plan

9 How much should you expect a child to eat?
For preschool kids: 1 tablespoon of food for every year of age If a kid is 3, then they get 3 tablespoons of food

10 Choking Up till the age of 4 years old, these kids are at risk to choke on the same foods that were a problem in the earlier years: Peanuts Grapes Hot dogs Raw carrots Candy Thick P.B.

11 Forcing children to eat
Can lead to : anorexia Bulimia Later in life

12 As kids grow… In this age group of 1-2 y.o, the caloric requirement diminishes as the child gets older. This picks back up as the child starts to get into pre-teen years Children still need nutritious foods, protein, fats, vitamins and minerals

13 What to limit in 1-2 y.o.’s Limit fruit juices
Increase water and fiber Avoid excessive amounts of milk, it can crowd out other foods such as iron-rich foods leaving the child with an iron deficiency

14 Childhood obesity Normal ht and wt are calculated based on standardized charts Pediatrician can tell you where your child is on the ht and wt scale for the child’s age 1 in 5 kids are now overweight in the U.S.

15 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Is seen in kids in the early years Insulin is needed if diet isn’t followed and if blood glucose is elevated

16 Cumulative problems related to obesity in children
Type 2 diabetes mellitus Asthma Sleep apnea Hyperlipidemia HTN

17 As these kids get older…
They are likely to suffer other ailments: Hip and knee problems Social stigma Depression Suicide attempts Anorexia from the peer pressure

18 How to handle the obese child
Offer dietician to see pt Discuss “My Pyramid” Discuss exercise regimen, offer fun activities Parents need education and tips that encourage kids to “move”

19 Healthy Food Options for obese child
Health after school snacks such as: Fruits and veggies Salsa as dip Low-fat popcorn Single serving of cereal (whole grain) Individual bag of pretzels AVOID SODAS AND SUGAR DRINKS

20 Other healthful tips for parents
Limit t.v. and computer use Get moving yourself, it enforces good habits Never tell a child “he is fat” Become familiar with “My Pyramid” Never provide food as a comfort or as a reward Encourage child to drink plenty of water

21 Childhood Type 2 Diabetes
Most obese children of ages develop this Children need to see Endocrinologist to watch disease Dietician is also needed

22 Adolescence

23 Adolescence Persons between ages 13 and 20
Period of rapid growth that causes many changes Bones grow and gain density, muscle and fat tissue develop, blood volume increases, boys voice’s change, girls start menses Different changes occur in different kids, be aware of their needs as individuals, counseling may be needed for these pre-teens and teens

24 Adolescents Tend not to imitate adults, rather they imitate other kids
Peer pressure is on in this age group Keep kids involved in allowing them to make health food choices, they will feel more independent Offer nutritious snacks and foods, get rid of the junk and sodas

25 Calorie and Nutrient needs
Are increased in the teen years Boys need more calories than girls Girls need more iron than boys d/t menses

26 Anorexia Nervosa Is a physiological disorder seen more prevalent in girls than in boys

27 Effects of Anorexia Hair loss Low B.P Weakness
Amenorrhea – (stoppage of monthly menstrual cycle) Brain damage death


29 Causes of Anorexia Unclear overall but is believed to be due to:
An inordinate fear of being fat Those with demanding parents try and gain their own control, they choose to not eat Some want to resemble slim fashion models Overachievers and perfectionists who want control over their body


31 Odd behaviors of Anorexics
Count calories of every bit of food they put into their mouths Drink large amounts of water and eat ice to feel full Drink boiling hot water with lemon to burn taste buds Chew up food to taste it, then spit it out to not take in the calories Eat large amounts of fruit only Exercise ALL DAY LONG, performing over sit ups in a day Using ketone strips to test urine, they want to be in ketosis

32 Bulimia A syndrome in which the pt alternately binges food and then purges by inducing vomiting, using laxatives and diuretics to get rid of ingested foods They are high achievers who are perfectionists, obsessive and depressed, they hide their disease


34 Bulimia starts in late teens into the thirties
They binge on high calorie, high fat foods and can do this for a length of time, then they purge to feel better Stress increases the frequency of binges

35 Effects of Bulimia Not usually life-threatening
Causes irritation in the esophagus d/t acid coming back up = bleeding Causes loss of electrolytes, malnutrition, dehydration and dental caries

36 Both Anorexia & Bulimia
Cause pts to be VERY manipulative, pt doesn’t want you to know they are doing this because you will stop them Sneaky people Both illnesses need psychological treatment, usually in-patient setting works best to keep pts focused and in the watchful eyes of others

37 Being overweight… Lowers self esteem or one’s self worth

38 Fast Foods Try and discourage the consumption of these, limit these to once a week or less These foods contain high Na+ and high calories and fat

39 Alcohol Is a depressant, is addicting and is mistaken for just a happy fun time! Drinking impairs one’s judgment and leads to accidents and crime, sleepiness, loss of consciousness, and when too much is consumed in a short time, alcohol poisoning occurs = death Periods of excessive drinking can lead to alcoholism, cirrhosis, kidney and liver damage and death

40 Marijuana Use increases among teens
Increases appetite, especially for sweets 1 marijuana cigarette is = to 4-5 tobacco cigarettes because the smoke is held in your lungs longer and the lung absorbs the fat-soluble (THC) and stores it in fat Use of marijuana can lead to the used of there street drugs A.K.A. Mary Jane, weed, grass, pot, dope

41 Cocaine Is highly addictive and extremely harmful Causes:
Restlessness hallucinations Heightened self-confidence Euphoria loss of appetite Irritability cardiac irregularities Insomnia M.I. Depression Death Cig. Smoking is addictive Confusion smokable form is crack

42 Tobacco Smokers need extra vitamins like vit C and other vits
Smoking increases the risk of lung cancer and heart disease

43 Methamphetamine Potent form of amphetamine
Causes Hrt, R.R. and BP to increase Mouth is dry, swallowing is difficult Urination is difficult, appetite is decreased Pupils are dilated, reflexes speed up As the drug wears off, fatigue and depression are present Other names: crank, speed, crystal meth, zip and ice


45 Athletes Big in the teen years Athletes need additional:
Water – needs to be regularly replaced d/t perspiration Calories B Vitamins are needed for energy metabolism Na+ K+ Iron protein

46 IN REVIEW The rate of growth slows between the ages of 1 and 10
Adolescence is a time for rapid growth Fast foods and fads are on the rise, limit intake of fast foods Alcohol and drugs have always been a problem for teens, period of trial and error Increase in Na+, K+, B vits and iron are needed for the athlete


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