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© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. with snazzy editions by Mrs. Short Chapter 2 Psychology’s Scientific Method
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Fun Fact: What are the two most commonly required classes for psychology majors across the country? ANSWER: research statistics
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Preview Psychology’s Scientific Method Types of Psychological Research Research Samples and Settings Analyzing and Interpreting Data Conducting Ethical Research Thinking Critically About Research Scientific Method and Health and Wellness
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A SHORT Time to Ponder As a society, do we value critical thinking? Is critical thinking uncomfortable sometimes?
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Scientific Method Science is a method. (It’s a VERB) It’s not what you study, but how you study it.
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Scientific Method 1. observe some phenomenon 2. formulate hypothesis and predictions 3. test through empirical research 4. draw conclusions 5. evaluate the theory
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Scientific Method: Observe Step 1 Observe some phenomenon curiosity variables theory
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Scientific Method: Hypothesize Step 2 Formulate hypotheses and predictions testable prediction derived from theory
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Scientific Method: Research Step 3 Test through empirical research operational definition of variables analyze data using statistical procedures
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Scientific Method: Conclusions Step 4 Draw conclusions replication of results → reliability If other people cannot replicate your study, then your result are unreliable. What could this potentially mean for your study? (Think critically!)
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Scientific Method: Evaluate Step 5 Evaluate the theory change the theory? peer review and publication meta-analysis
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Descriptive Research Goal: Describing a phenomenon observation surveys and interviews case studies Descriptive research does not answer questions about how and why things are the way they are.
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Correlational Research Goal: Identify relationships (not causal relationships) correlation coefficient: r -1.00 ≤ r ≤ 1.00 strength of relationship: magnitude direction of relationship: + / -
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Correlation Coefficients
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Correlational Research Positive Correlations factors vary in same direction ↑ and ↑ … or … ↓ and ↓ Negative Correlations factors vary in opposite direction ↑ and ↓ … or … ↑ and ↓
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Correlation and Causation correlation does not equal causation third variable problem Why would some people not WANT to consider a third variable problem? longitudinal design
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Experimental Research Goal: Determine causation random assignment independent variable(s) – manipulation dependent variable(s) – measurement All of these vocabulary terms are very important to KNOW!
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Experimental Research Experimental Group independent variable is manipulated Control Group treated equally, except no manipulation of independent variable
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Validity External Validity representative of real world issues? do results generalize to the real world? Internal Validity are dependent variable changes the result of independent variable manipulation? bias? logical errors?
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Bias and Expectations experimenter bias demand characteristics research participant bias placebo effect double-blind experiment
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Example of Experimental Research – Self Esteem Baumeister’s research findings: “high self esteem leads to aggression” Donnellan & Trzesniewski’s research findings: “low self esteem leads to aggression” What accounts for these different findings? lab-only aggression? type of self esteem?
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Applying Different Research Methods to Same Phenomenon Example: Election of President Barack Obama Possible Research Methods observation survey and interview case studies correlational research experimental research
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Research Sample Population entire group about whom conclusion drawn Sample portion of population actually observed Representative Sample characteristics similar to population opposite of “biased sample” Random Sample equal chance of being selected
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Research Settings “Artificial” world – laboratory setting controlled setting Real world - natural setting naturalistic observation DISCUSSION: What are the advantages and disadvantages of each setting?
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Analyzing and Interpreting Data Statistics mathematical methods used to report data Descriptive Statistics describe and summarize data Inferential Statistics draw conclusions about data
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Descriptive Statistics Measures of Central Tendency mean median mode Measures of Dispersion range standard deviation
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Inferential Statistics does data confirm the hypothesis? statistical significance α = 0.05 (confidence level) bridge between sample and population
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A SHORT Time to Ponder What is the difference between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics?
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Research Ethics research participants have rights Institutional Review Board (IRB) APA Guidelines informed consent confidentiality debriefing deception
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Animal Research in Psychology animal research has benefited humans used by 5% of researchers rats and mice used 90% of time standards of care in animal research housing feeding psychological and physical well being
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Reality TV – Ethical Issues informed consent? Deception? psychological and/or physical risk? is the behavior real? DISCUSSION: What do YOU think?
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A Wise Consumer…is skeptical yet open-minded! Cautions exercise caution in applying group trends to individual experience avoid overgeneralizing results look for converging evidence question causal inferences consider the source
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Expressive Writing & Health Results of study on suicide v. accidental death different survivor health different survivor rate of talking about the loss Results lead to study on writing those assigned to write about a trauma experienced better physical health
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Summary Explain what makes psychology a science. Discuss common research settings and the main types of research that are used in psychology. Distinguish between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Discuss some challenges that involve ethics, bias, and information. Discuss scientific studies on the effect of writing about ones trauma.
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Summary Steps of the Scientific Method observe, hypothesize, research, conclude, evaluate Research Methods and Settings descriptive, correlational, and experimental studies conducted in natural settings or the lab
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Summary Data Analysis and Interpretation descriptive and inferential statistics Challenges: Research Ethics and Bias APA guidelines and the IRB Expressive Writing and Health and Wellness benefits of writing about trauma
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. 1 Psychology as a Science Theory development involves collecting interrelated ideas and observations Taken.
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