3 Carnegie Foundation's Reading Next and Writing Next The Study:The reading and writing report from the Alliance for Excellent Education by Giana Biancarosa and Catherine Snow research on literacy for adolescent students has made some recommendations to improve literacy in adolescences.
4 Recommendations For Reading 1. Direct, explicit comprehension2. Effective instructional principles embedded in content3. Motivation and self-directed learning4. Text-based collaborative learning,5. Strategic tutoring6. Diverse texts7. Intensive writing8. A technology component9. Ongoing formative assessment of students10. Extended time for literacy11. Professional development12. Ongoing summative assessment of students and programs13. Teacher teams14. Leadership15. A comprehensive and coordinated literacy programThis reportprovidesfifteenelementsdesigned atimprovingmiddle andhigh schoolliteracy
5 Recommendations # 1 and # 2 #1 Effective comprehension instruction requires purposeful and explicit teaching:A teacher needs to:know what the student’s cognitive needsto be clearneeds to have a purposeprovide scaffolded instruction in research-tested strategiesto model the strategy and to allow students to use them#2 Effective reading instruction embedded in contentA teacher needs toProvide interactions that support the understanding of all the subjectsuses a range of techniques of specific textsis clear about the types of textsprovides discussionsprovides writing in response to readingStrategies:Previewing the text and predictingChunking the textRead Aloud and think aloudReview, retelling, summarizingGraphic sources, organizers(graphic organizers),visual imagesAttending to text structureDiscussions:Student-led discussionsBalanced level of questionsBloom’s Taxonomy
6 Recommendations # 3 and # 4 #3 Motivation and self-directed learningEffective reading comprehension instruction starts with motivation and attitudeA teacher needs to:help the student to become aware of their unique learning strengthsshow motivation her/himselfprovide the students with opportunities to choose reading materials/typeprovide opportunities for successemphasize progress rather than performanceallow students to have some control over the choices of text#4 Effective reading instruction offers Text-based collaborative learningA teacher needs to:provide a rage of concepts and techniques for enhancing the value of student-student interactionpromote reading across the curriculumencourage small group participationpromote interaction beyond discussionencourage decentralized learningBuilders of motivation:Presence of different genresBooks with different levels of reading difficultyGoal: to enjoy and learn rather than a gradeIndependent reading timeCollaborative learning:Positive interdependence:“what helps one helps all”Individual accountabilityProcessing group interaction: time,number of members in a groupHeterogeneous and homogeneous grouping
7 Recommendations #5 and #6 # 5 Strategic tutoringNeeds toprovide students with intense individualized reading, writing, and content instruction asTutoring needs toprovide Intense and individualize instructionfocus on specific area of reading (within the 5)be offered during the school day# 6 Effective reading instruction offers a diversity of textsA teacher needs to:provide a rage of concepts and techniques for enhancing the value of student-student interactionpromote reading across the curriculumencourage small group participationpromote interaction beyond discussionencourage decentralized learningFive areas of reading instruction:Phonemic awarenessDecodingFluencyVocabularyComprehensionWeave a web of connectionswithin lessons, across lessons, and tostudents’lives in and out of school.
8 Recommendations # 7 and # 8 # 7 Effective reading instruction offers Intensive writingReading to Writing activitiesDialogue journalsDebateThematic unitsWriting to Reading activitiesWriting as a pre-reading activityWriting during reading activityWriting as a post reading activity# 8 A technology componentNeeds to use:Technology as both an instructional tool and an instructional topicTechnology as a facilitator of literacy and a medium of literacyNeeds to be use in different way or stages of literacyComputer applications for instruction:supplementary applications to used along with other forms of instruction; and stand-alone applications that are used by students with minimal teacher inputThe connection:Reading and writing are natural partnersOne cannot be done without the otherWriters write so their work can be readSoftware packages and Internet can provideliteracy instruction to supporta self-paced, stand-alone readingand writing environmentGame /interactive activities are mediumsof learning and entertainment
9 Recommendations # 9 and # 10 # 9 On going assessment for studentsPre-during-post assessmentsRunning records (keep track of progress)Results need to be accessible to those who work with the kidsMake results (data) meaningful and have a purpose for testingFocus on one area of reading at the timeReading fluency: accuracy, rate, prosodyVocabularyComprehension (It must require students to demonstrate their level of reading comprehension by completing some task)# 10 Extended time for readingReading instruction and practice needs to happen throughout the dayAt least 2 to 4 hours of instruction connected to the Language ArtsTime needs to be spend connecting reading and writingReading time needs to be meaningful: quantity not always equals qualityMake time for readingAssessment should be meaningfulUse data to:Promote learningPlan strategically, to individualize teaching/learningProvide evidence to support decisions asto where to focus resources and teaching.I Have No TimeI have no time to dream a dreamOr think a splendid thoughtI need time to read!
10 Formative Assessments Summative Assessments Recommendations # 11 and 12# 11 Professional DevelopmentTeachers should:have on going professional developmentbe offered to everyone that works directly with the studentsshould use data from research studiesattend inservice of specific and non-specific content areas (to sharpen cross-curriculum instruction)seek professional development that is tied to the school, district, and state goals (curriculum and standards) for student achievementReflect on students’ need to seek the right inservice# 12 Ongoing summative Assessment of Students and ProgramsSummative assessmentsare typically used to evaluate the effectiveness of instructional programs and services at the end of an academic year or at a pre-determined timedetermine each student's abilityare used to identify instructional areas that need additional attentionare used to determine if students have mastered specific abilitiesFormative AssessmentsSummative AssessmentsAnecdotal recordsFinal examsQuizzes and essaysStatewide tests (ISAT, DWA)Diagnostic testsNational tests (SAT and ACT)AR tests, selection testsProfessional development can promotea positive school environment,Improve individual teacher skills,team work, and student achievement.
11 Recommendations # 13 and # 14 # 13 Teacher teamsTeams need:to be properly fashioned and managedto be diverse (strengths, abilities, experience, expertise)need to distribute obligations and resourcesto last for prolonged period of time (to grow effectively into productive teams)to have accountability as a teamto have informative assessmentsto report to principal/supervisor# 14 LeadershipEntitlesa principal and staff with a collective visiona principal and commitment and enthusiasma school with a defined mission statement, a vision and goals and objectivesa principal with knowledge of students strengths and learning needsteachers who are capable to assume a leadership role in teams or committeesTwo (or more) heads are better than one!“Leadership is not magnetic personality—that can just as well be a glibtongue. It is not "making friends and influencing people“—that is flattery.Leadership is lifting a person's visionto higher sights, the raising of a person's performanceto a higher standard, the building of a personalitybeyond its normal limitations.”Peter F. Drucker
12 Recommendation # 15# 15 A comprehensive and Coordinated Literacy ProgramA program that:requires teachers to work and coordinate instructionencourages interdisciplinary teamspromotes reading and writing teachers support and help content-area teachersteachers to share writing and reading skills to support other subjectsreaches or initiates collaborations with our-of-school organizationsdisplays motivation, enthusiasm, commitments to learning and reflects these to the students“The achievements of an organization are theresults of the combined effort of each individual.”Vincent Lombardi
13 One cannot be done without the other! Reading and Writing
14 ReadingWritingShared readingShared writingTEACHERMay read aloud, ask students to predict, infer, concludeHelps students fine tune ideas, make suggestions, ask questions, clarifySTUDENTRespond to questionsPartner reading with peer, cross age tutorAccept responsibility for fleshing out ideas, using personal experiences, illustrations.Pattern writing style after another authorReadingWritingGuided readingGuided writingTEACHERDoes reciprocal teaching before, during and after readingOffers techniques, strategiesUses reciprocal teaching techniques to guide writing, fine tuning writingSTUDENTAccepts more responsibility for reading when reading materials at their instructional levelAccepts responsibility for writing, looks for guidance from teacher or "more literate other" (peer, family member, etc.
15 Reading READING WRITING Reading aloud Modeled writing TEACHER Models fluency and expressionReads at student's listening levelDemonstrates planning, brainstorming, structuring, drafting, editing, revising, rereading, thinking aloudSTUDENTIs an attentive listenerObservesLearns by examplePractices getting into readers' and writers' mindsReadingWritingGuided readingGuided writingTEACHERDoes reciprocal teaching before, during and after reading. Offers techniques, strategiesUses reciprocal teaching techniques to guide writing, fine tuning writingSTUDENTAccepts more responsibility for reading when reading materials at their instructional levelAccepts responsibility for writing, looks for guidance from teacher or "more literate other" (peer, mom, dad, tutor, etc.Reading
16 ReadingWritingIndependent readingIndependent writingTEACHERModels own independent reading.Gives time to read:DEAR, SSR, WARP, etc.Models a variety of opportunities/genres for writing, letters, journals, notes, poems, storiesSTUDENTTakes responsibility for choice of reading materials, practices reading skills learned in guided reading, time for practice, reflection.Finds time to read without deadlines.Makes personal choice of writing topics, takes responsibility for completion of tasks, practices skills learned in guided writing, reflects, and rewrites
17 Recommendations For Writing This reportprovideselevenelementsdesigned atimprovingmiddle andhigh schoolliteracyWriting StrategiesSummarizationCollaborative Writing4. Specific Product GoalsWord ProcessingSentence-CombiningPrewritingInquiry ActivitiesProcess Writing ApproachStudy of ModelsWriting for content learning
18 Recommendations 1 and 2 #2 Summarization Students need to learn to express their reading in a shorter versionThe summary captures all the most important parts of the original (passage, story, article), but expresses them in a shorter version#1 Teaching Explicit Writing StrategiesIntensive instruction should focus on the following:Writing strategiesKnowledge of the elements of genresSelf-regulation strategiesBrainstormingPeer-revisingJournaling: response,double-entry journals, learning logsGist statementsFocusing on one element at a time:ideas, organization, word choice,sentence fluency, convention, and voiceExit SlipsSRSD: self-regulated strategy developmentRead the article.Re-read the article.Underline important ideas.Circle/underline key terms.Find the main point of the article.Divide the article into sectionsWrite brief outline of the article/passage/story. Write a rough draft of the summary:Combine these steps into paragraphs.Read it to yourself, a peer and/or teacher
19 Recommendations # 3 and # 4 #3 Collaborative WritingCollaborative groups draw upon the strengths of all their membersOne student may be stronger in one area (example one can be stronger in critical thinking skills, another may excel in organizing)By working in groups, students learn from each other while they complete assigned tasks#4 Specific Product GoalsStudents need attainable specific goalsBe specific (element, trait, genre)Use models to attain specific goalModels show students what they should do, and avoid what they need to avoidStudents work together toplan, raft, revise, andedit their compositionsPositive interdependence:“what helps one helps all”“If you don't know where you are going,you’ll end up someplace else.”Jogi BerraOrAlice in Wonderland found out,"If you don't know where you're going,then any road can take you there."
20 Recommendations #5 and #6 # 5 Word ProcessingWord processors are powerful assistantsWorld Wide Web provides new ways to practice writingWord processors provide software to enhance writing: example, Inspiration (organizing, pre writing, outlining skills)# 6 Sentence CombiningGrammar instruction should be matched to the purpose of the userKill two birds in one shot: encourage the students to explain how incorrect usage of the words/sentences or passage in the essay might affect the reader (writing and reading)When reading, point out the simple and complex sentencesAsk students to find models of simple and complex sentences as they readWord processing isprimarily about manipulating text:Add, edit, cut and paste, move textWorking with sentences:
21 Recommendations # 7 and # 8 # 7 Pre-writingAllow some time in class for students to engage in prewriting activities:Response Journals (prompts)Dialogue Journals (interact with others and text)BrainstormingMapping and webbing, flow charts and treesFree writingSummaries and QuestioningAnnotated Bibliographies (when using resources)Electronic Discussions (using technology)Listing Outlines (start small and simple)Models (see others pre-writing work)# 8 Inquiry ActivitiesEngage students in activities that target:The development of ideasAnalyzingComparing and contrastingEvaluatingSynthesizingCollecting data and evidenceReflect on observationsWork with other subjects (cross-curriculum)1) Why am I writing? (purpose) 2) What will I write about? (subject) 3) What will I say? (content) 4) How will I say it? (voice)5) For whom am I writing? (audience)Ideas:Create a brochureReporter assignment (newspaper article)Review of literaturePresent a historical eventWrite about science processes
22 Recommendations # 9 and # 10 # 9 Process Writing ApproachEncourages planningEncourages ownership and responsibility of one’s writingEncourages dialogue with others writingEncourages questioning writing purpose and processEncourages self-reflection and evaluationKeeps in mind the different traits of writing:IdeasOrganizationWord choiceSentence fluencyConventionsvoice# 10 Study of ModelsStudying models help students understand the conventionsIt serves as a motivator (they want to produce something like it)Models show students way to use the critical elements of writingWhat do I write about?Who is my audience?How do I structure my essay?What sort of language and voice should I use?I need to fix this, I need to fix that. . .I can add this, I can delete that“A good example [model] has twicethe value of good advice”“To accept good advice is but toincrease one's own ability”Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
23 Recommendations # 11 # 11 Writing for Content Area All subjects should include some form of writing:Students should write for authentic audiences and purposesStudents should know in advance the criteria that will be used to assess their writingExamples:Science: research, process, analytical, compare and contrast, cause and effect, sequence (step by step) papersSocial Studies: research, cause and effect, compare and contrast, narrative, biographical papersP.E.: how to, cause and effect, compare and contrast papersMathematics: how to paperSince each subject (content area) has its own conventions and style,those conventions should be taught to students.Then, content area teachers have the responsibility to teach reading and writing through the content area