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Reading and Writing By Ximena Schneider.

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1 Reading and Writing By Ximena Schneider

2 Reading Next and Writing Next

3 Carnegie Foundation's Reading Next and Writing Next
The Study: The reading and writing report from the Alliance for Excellent Education by Giana Biancarosa and Catherine Snow research on literacy for adolescent students has made some recommendations to improve literacy in adolescences.

4 Recommendations For Reading
1. Direct, explicit comprehension 2. Effective instructional principles embedded in content 3. Motivation and self-directed learning 4. Text-based collaborative learning, 5. Strategic tutoring 6. Diverse texts 7. Intensive writing 8. A technology component 9. Ongoing formative assessment of students 10. Extended time for literacy 11. Professional development 12. Ongoing summative assessment of students and programs 13. Teacher teams 14. Leadership 15. A comprehensive and coordinated literacy program This report provides fifteen elements designed at improving middle and high school literacy

5 Recommendations # 1 and # 2
#1 Effective comprehension instruction requires purposeful and explicit teaching: A teacher needs to: know what the student’s cognitive needs to be clear needs to have a purpose provide scaffolded instruction in research-tested strategies to model the strategy and to allow students to use them #2 Effective reading instruction embedded in content A teacher needs to Provide interactions that support the understanding of all the subjects uses a range of techniques of specific texts is clear about the types of texts provides discussions provides writing in response to reading Strategies: Previewing the text and predicting Chunking the text Read Aloud and think aloud Review, retelling, summarizing Graphic sources, organizers (graphic organizers), visual images Attending to text structure Discussions: Student-led discussions Balanced level of questions Bloom’s Taxonomy

6 Recommendations # 3 and # 4
#3 Motivation and self-directed learning Effective reading comprehension instruction starts with motivation and attitude A teacher needs to: help the student to become aware of their unique learning strengths show motivation her/himself provide the students with opportunities to choose reading materials/type provide opportunities for success emphasize progress rather than performance allow students to have some control over the choices of text #4 Effective reading instruction offers Text-based collaborative learning A teacher needs to: provide a rage of concepts and techniques for enhancing the value of student-student interaction promote reading across the curriculum encourage small group participation promote interaction beyond discussion encourage decentralized learning Builders of motivation: Presence of different genres Books with different levels of reading difficulty Goal: to enjoy and learn rather than a grade Independent reading time Collaborative learning: Positive interdependence: “what helps one helps all” Individual accountability Processing group interaction: time, number of members in a group Heterogeneous and homogeneous grouping

7 Recommendations #5 and #6
# 5 Strategic tutoring Needs to provide students with intense individualized reading, writing, and content instruction as Tutoring needs to provide Intense and individualize instruction focus on specific area of reading (within the 5) be offered during the school day # 6 Effective reading instruction offers a diversity of texts A teacher needs to: provide a rage of concepts and techniques for enhancing the value of student-student interaction promote reading across the curriculum encourage small group participation promote interaction beyond discussion encourage decentralized learning Five areas of reading instruction: Phonemic awareness Decoding Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Weave a web of connections within lessons, across lessons, and to students’ lives in and out of school.

8 Recommendations # 7 and # 8
# 7 Effective reading instruction offers Intensive writing Reading to Writing activities Dialogue journals Debate Thematic units Writing to Reading activities Writing as a pre-reading activity Writing during reading activity Writing as a post reading activity # 8 A technology component Needs to use: Technology as both an instructional tool and an instructional topic Technology as a facilitator of literacy and a medium of literacy Needs to be use in different way or stages of literacy Computer applications for instruction: supplementary applications to used along with other forms of instruction; and stand-alone applications that are used by students with minimal teacher input The connection: Reading and writing are natural partners One cannot be done without the other Writers write so their work can be read Software packages and Internet can provide literacy instruction to support a self-paced, stand-alone reading and writing environment Game /interactive activities are mediums of learning and entertainment

9 Recommendations # 9 and # 10
# 9 On going assessment for students Pre-during-post assessments Running records (keep track of progress) Results need to be accessible to those who work with the kids Make results (data) meaningful and have a purpose for testing Focus on one area of reading at the time Reading fluency: accuracy, rate, prosody Vocabulary Comprehension (It must require students to demonstrate their level of reading comprehension by completing some task) # 10 Extended time for reading Reading instruction and practice needs to happen throughout the day At least 2 to 4 hours of instruction connected to the Language Arts Time needs to be spend connecting reading and writing Reading time needs to be meaningful: quantity not always equals quality Make time for reading Assessment should be meaningful Use data to: Promote learning Plan strategically, to individualize teaching/learning Provide evidence to support decisions as to where to focus resources and teaching. I Have No Time I have no time to dream a dream Or think a splendid thought I need time to read!

10 Formative Assessments Summative Assessments
Recommendations # 11 and 12 # 11 Professional Development Teachers should: have on going professional development be offered to everyone that works directly with the students should use data from research studies attend inservice of specific and non-specific content areas (to sharpen cross-curriculum instruction) seek professional development that is tied to the school, district, and state goals (curriculum and standards) for student achievement Reflect on students’ need to seek the right inservice # 12 Ongoing summative Assessment of Students and Programs Summative assessments are typically used to evaluate the effectiveness of instructional programs and services at the end of an academic year or at a pre-determined time determine each student's ability are used to identify instructional areas that need additional attention are used to determine if students have mastered specific abilities Formative Assessments Summative Assessments Anecdotal records Final exams Quizzes and essays Statewide tests (ISAT, DWA) Diagnostic tests National tests (SAT and ACT) AR tests, selection tests Professional development can promote a positive school environment, Improve individual teacher skills, team work, and student achievement.

11 Recommendations # 13 and # 14
# 13 Teacher teams Teams need: to be properly fashioned and managed to be diverse (strengths, abilities, experience, expertise) need to distribute obligations and resources to last for prolonged period of time (to grow effectively into productive teams) to have accountability as a team to have informative assessments to report to principal/supervisor # 14 Leadership Entitles a principal and staff with a collective vision a principal and commitment and enthusiasm a school with a defined mission statement, a vision and goals and objectives a principal with knowledge of students strengths and learning needs teachers who are capable to assume a leadership role in teams or committees Two (or more) heads are better than one! “Leadership is not magnetic personality—that can just as well be a glib tongue. It is not "making friends and influencing people“—that is flattery. Leadership is lifting a person's vision to higher sights, the raising of a person's performance to a higher standard, the building of a personality beyond its normal limitations.” Peter F. Drucker

12 Recommendation # 15 # 15 A comprehensive and Coordinated Literacy Program A program that: requires teachers to work and coordinate instruction encourages interdisciplinary teams promotes reading and writing teachers support and help content-area teachers teachers to share writing and reading skills to support other subjects reaches or initiates collaborations with our-of-school organizations displays motivation, enthusiasm, commitments to learning and reflects these to the students “The achievements of an organization are the results of the combined effort of each individual.” Vincent Lombardi

13 One cannot be done without the other! Reading and Writing

14 Reading Writing Shared reading Shared writing TEACHER May read aloud, ask students to predict, infer, conclude Helps students fine tune ideas, make suggestions, ask questions, clarify STUDENT Respond to questions Partner reading with peer, cross age tutor Accept responsibility for fleshing out ideas, using personal experiences, illustrations. Pattern writing style after another author Reading Writing Guided reading Guided writing TEACHER Does reciprocal teaching before, during and after reading Offers techniques, strategies Uses reciprocal teaching techniques to guide writing, fine tuning writing STUDENT Accepts more responsibility for reading when reading materials at their instructional level Accepts responsibility for writing, looks for guidance from teacher or "more literate other" (peer, family member, etc.

15 Reading READING WRITING Reading aloud Modeled writing TEACHER
Models fluency and expression Reads at student's listening level Demonstrates planning, brainstorming, structuring, drafting, editing, revising, rereading, thinking aloud STUDENT Is an attentive listener Observes Learns by example Practices getting into readers' and writers' minds Reading Writing Guided reading Guided writing TEACHER Does reciprocal teaching before, during and after reading. Offers techniques, strategies Uses reciprocal teaching techniques to guide writing, fine tuning writing STUDENT Accepts more responsibility for reading when reading materials at their instructional level Accepts responsibility for writing, looks for guidance from teacher or "more literate other" (peer, mom, dad, tutor, etc. Reading

16 Reading Writing Independent reading Independent writing TEACHER Models own independent reading. Gives time to read: DEAR, SSR, WARP, etc. Models a variety of opportunities/genres for writing, letters, journals, notes, poems, stories STUDENT Takes responsibility for choice of reading materials, practices reading skills learned in guided reading, time for practice, reflection. Finds time to read without deadlines. Makes personal choice of writing topics, takes responsibility for completion of tasks, practices skills learned in guided writing, reflects, and rewrites

17 Recommendations For Writing
This report provides eleven elements designed at improving middle and high school literacy Writing Strategies Summarization Collaborative Writing 4. Specific Product Goals Word Processing Sentence-Combining Prewriting Inquiry Activities Process Writing Approach Study of Models Writing for content learning

18 Recommendations 1 and 2 #2 Summarization
Students need to learn to express their reading in a shorter version The summary captures all the most important parts of the original (passage, story, article), but expresses them in a shorter version #1 Teaching Explicit Writing Strategies Intensive instruction should focus on the following: Writing strategies Knowledge of the elements of genres Self-regulation strategies Brainstorming Peer-revising Journaling: response, double-entry journals, learning logs Gist statements Focusing on one element at a time: ideas, organization, word choice, sentence fluency, convention, and voice Exit Slips SRSD: self-regulated strategy development Read the article. Re-read the article. Underline important ideas. Circle/underline key terms. Find the main point of the article. Divide the article into sections Write brief outline of the article/passage/story.  Write a rough draft of the summary: Combine these steps into paragraphs. Read it to yourself, a peer and/or teacher 

19 Recommendations # 3 and # 4
#3 Collaborative Writing Collaborative groups draw upon the strengths of all their members One student may be stronger in one area (example one can be stronger in critical thinking skills, another may excel in organizing) By working in groups, students learn from each other while they complete assigned tasks #4 Specific Product Goals Students need attainable specific goals Be specific (element, trait, genre) Use models to attain specific goal Models show students what they should do, and avoid what they need to avoid Students work together to plan, raft, revise, and edit their compositions Positive interdependence: “what helps one helps all” “If you don't know where you are going, you’ll end up someplace else.” Jogi Berra Or Alice in Wonderland found out, "If you don't know where you're going, then any road can take you there." 

20 Recommendations #5 and #6
# 5 Word Processing Word processors are powerful assistants World Wide Web provides new ways to practice writing Word processors provide software to enhance writing: example, Inspiration (organizing, pre writing, outlining skills) # 6 Sentence Combining Grammar instruction should be matched to the purpose of the user Kill two birds in one shot: encourage the students to explain how incorrect usage of the words/sentences or passage in the essay might affect the reader (writing and reading) When reading, point out the simple and complex sentences Ask students to find models of simple and complex sentences as they read Word processing is primarily about manipulating text: Add, edit, cut and paste, move text Working with sentences:

21 Recommendations # 7 and # 8
# 7 Pre-writing Allow some time in class for students to engage in prewriting activities: Response Journals (prompts) Dialogue Journals (interact with others and text) Brainstorming Mapping and webbing, flow charts and trees Free writing Summaries and Questioning Annotated Bibliographies (when using resources) Electronic Discussions (using technology) Listing Outlines (start small and simple) Models (see others pre-writing work) # 8 Inquiry Activities Engage students in activities that target: The development of ideas Analyzing Comparing and contrasting Evaluating Synthesizing Collecting data and evidence Reflect on observations Work with other subjects (cross-curriculum) 1) Why am I writing? (purpose) 2) What will I write about? (subject) 3) What will I say? (content) 4) How will I say it? (voice) 5) For whom am I writing? (audience) Ideas: Create a brochure Reporter assignment (newspaper article) Review of literature Present a historical event Write about science processes

22 Recommendations # 9 and # 10
# 9 Process Writing Approach Encourages planning Encourages ownership and responsibility of one’s writing Encourages dialogue with others writing Encourages questioning writing purpose and process Encourages self-reflection and evaluation Keeps in mind the different traits of writing: Ideas Organization Word choice Sentence fluency Conventions voice # 10 Study of Models Studying models help students understand the conventions It serves as a motivator (they want to produce something like it) Models show students way to use the critical elements of writing What do I write about? Who is my audience? How do I structure my essay? What sort of language and voice should I use? I need to fix this, I need to fix that. . . I can add this, I can delete that “A good example [model] has twice the value of good advice” “To accept good advice is but to increase one's own ability” Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

23 Recommendations # 11 # 11 Writing for Content Area
All subjects should include some form of writing: Students should write for authentic audiences and purposes Students should know in advance the criteria that will be used to assess their writing Examples: Science: research, process, analytical, compare and contrast, cause and effect, sequence (step by step) papers Social Studies: research, cause and effect, compare and contrast, narrative, biographical papers P.E.: how to, cause and effect, compare and contrast papers Mathematics: how to paper Since each subject (content area) has its own conventions and style, those conventions should be taught to students. Then, content area teachers have the responsibility to teach reading and writing through the content area

24 Read like a writer and write like a reader!

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