Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Letter Knowledge Jennifer Balls. What? Letter Knowledge 1.Letters are components of written words 2.Letters represent sounds of words 3.There."— Presentation transcript:
What? Letter Knowledge 1.Letters are components of written words 2.Letters represent sounds of words 3.There are 26 upper and lowercase letters 4.Each letter shape corresponds to a letter name and sound.
What? Letter Names 1.All known letter systems are iconic (the names of the letters contain the sounds they represent). 2.Factors affecting learning –Visual form, shape, The more alike, the more likely they will confuse. –Phonological characteristics The number of phonemes that pairs of letters share in the same position. –Phonologically and Visually Similar More likely to confuse letters with similar names and well as shapes.
What? Handwriting 1.As students are taught the names, they should also be taught how to write those letters. 2.In the earliest grades, handwriting is linked to basic reading and spelling achievement. 3.Young students need detailed instruction on formation of letters. 4.All need plenty of practice!
Why? Knowing letter names provides a springboard for learning and remembering letter sound relationships. Allen, Neuhaus & Beckwith, 2005 1.Letter knowledge makes it easier for students to master the sound/spelling correspondences. 2.Letter knowledge helps to make sense of printed words 3.Letter naming leads to word-reading accuracy and fluency, and to reading comprehension. 4.Handwriting practice aids in letter recognition development 5.Fluent handwriting leads to better composition skills
When? When To Teach 1.By age three – learn to sing or recite at least part of the alphabet song 2.Early grades – formal instruction that will help them name, recognize, and write letters. - No consensus on sequence for teaching letters - Some letter sounds need more time to be taught and learned.
When? WHEN TO ASSESS AND INTERVENE 1. Letter Naming Fluency – Should include the speed and accuracy with which student identify letters. - Kindergarten (fall, winter, spring) - 1st grade (fall) 2. Handwriting Skills – assessment should include observations of: - Execution – includes correct and consistent pencil hold, posture, and letter formation. - Legibility – involves the readability of letters as well as spacing within the words. - Speed of Writing – contributes to students ability to complete tasks efficiently.
How? LETTER NAMES AND SOUNDS (UPPERCASE AND LOWERCASE) 1.In Kindergarten, it is generally recommended that uppercase letters be taught before lowercase letters. 2.Teach letter formation using a continuous stroke. 3.Group together letters that begin in the same place and us the same type of stroke. 4.Teach proper handwriting posture, paper position, and pencil grip. 5.Trace and copy letter forms with finger and pencil. Repeat multiple times. 6.Teach letter name and sound together.
How? STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES 1.Sing the Alphabet song 2.Teach/Model - finger trace the letters from top to bottom and then back up 3.Alphabet Center - Blocks, books, letter cards, stencils, stamps 4.Letter path - walk the alphabet with cards on the floor 5.Guess what Game - Identify letters by feeling their shapes
How? STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES Cont 6.Skywrite - Use finger or pencil to write letters in the air. 7.Read an Alphabet Big Book - Read aloud first, then go back and point to target letters. 8.Letters in Your Name - Match letters to those in his/her own name. 9.Alphabet Concentration - Match uppercase letter to lowercase letter. 10.Guided Practice -Student copies what teacher does, then repeats on own.
Conclusion Letter names supply convenient verbal labels that uniquely identify each letter and that are important if a child is to understand the language of literacy. - Share, 2004 A childs ability to identify the letters of the alphabet by name is one of the best predictors of how readily he or she will learn to read. - Treiman, Kessler & Pollo, 2006