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Russian Revolution Semester 2 – Day 146. Bellwork: Honors.

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Presentation on theme: "Russian Revolution Semester 2 – Day 146. Bellwork: Honors."— Presentation transcript:

1 Russian Revolution Semester 2 – Day 146

2 Bellwork: Honors

3 Bellwork: Regular What do the terms bring to mind: Red Army, Lenin and Communism.

4 Background Not prepared for the total war of WWI No competent military leaders Czar Nicolas II lacked military ability and training Many soldiers lack weapons 2 million killed in WWI 4 – 6 million wounded or captured in WWI

5 Beginnings of Upheaval Czar Nicolas II autocratic ruler Wife, Alexandra made all important decisions while he was away at war; she consulted with her advisor Rasputin on all decisions Military and economic disasters upset the people of Russia Rasputin was killed in December 1916

6 The March Revolution Working class women began a series of strikes in Petrograd Government was rationing bread Thousands went on strike and shut down the factories; troops were order to shot if necessary to break up the strikes; soldiers began to join the demonstrators The Duma (legislative body) established a provisional government and urged the czar to step down; he did on March 15, 1917

7 Provisional Government Headed by Alexander Kerensky Wanted to carry on WWI to preserve Russias honor Workers and peasants wanted out of the war The soviets, councils of workers and soldiers, challenged the authority of the government; made up of socialists; one radical group the Bolsheviks would become significant

8 The Rise of Lenin Bolsheviks: small faction of a Marxist party called the Russian Social Democrats Led by Vladirmir Ilyich Ulianov (V.I. Lenin) Dedicated to violent revolutions; only violence could destroy capitalism April 1917 – Germany shipped Lenin to Russia Wanted to use soviets of soldiers, workers, and peasants to overthrow provisional government Promised end to war, the redistribution of all land to the peasants, the transfer of factories and industries from capitalists to committees of workers, and the transfer of government power to the soviets

9 Bolsheviks Seize Power November 6, Bolshevik forces seized the Winter Palace, provisional government quickly collapsed Power passed to Council of Peoples Commissars, headed by Lenin Bolsheviks renamed themselves Communist March 3, 1918: signed Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany gave up eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic provinces

10 Civil War in Russia Many were opposed to the Communist regime Communist (Red) army formed to fight opponents (loyalist, liberals, anti-Lenin socialists, and Allies) Anti-Communist (White) Army formed and was defeated by 1920 and Ukraine retaken; also gained control of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan July 16, 1918: czar and family murdered and bodies burned

11 Triumph of the Communists Red Army was well disciplined Leon Trotsky: reinstated draft, insisted on discipline; soldiers who deserted or didnt obey orders were shot on the spot. Anti-Communist forces were not united War communism: government control of banks and most industries, seized grain from peasants, and centralized state administration Revolutionary terror: Cheka (secret police) 1921 in total control

12 Assignment Honors: Workbook 23-2 Regular: Workbook page 114

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