Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents What Is an Animal? Animal Symmetry"— Presentation transcript:
1 Table of Contents What Is an Animal? Animal Symmetry Sponges and CnidariansWorms
2 Structure of Animals - What Is an Animal? The cells of most animals are organized into higher levels of structure, including tissues,organs, and systems.
3 Classification of Animals - What Is an Animal?Classification of AnimalsThis branching tree shows how the major animal groups are related.
4 Asking Questions - What Is an Animal? Before you read, preview the red headings. In a graphic organizer like the one below, ask a what or how question for each heading. As you read, write answers to your questions.QuestionAnswerWhat is a cell?A cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living things.What is the structure of animals?The cells of animals are organized into tissues, organs, and systems.What are the functions of animals?Animals must obtain food and oxygen, keep a stable environment within their bodies, reproduce, and move about to meet their needs.How are animals classified?Animals are classified according to how they are related to other organisms.
5 Links on the Animal Kingdom - What Is an Animal?Links on the Animal KingdomClick the SciLinks button for links on the animal kingdom.
7 Comparing and Contrasting - Animal SymmetryComparing and ContrastingAs you read, compare and contrast the characteristics of animals with bilateral symmetry and radial symmetry in a Venn diagram like the one below. Write the similarities in the space where the circles overlap and the differences on the left and right sides.Radial SymmetryBilateral SymmetryOne line of symmetry, halves that are mirror images, front end with sense organs, quick movementMany lines of symmetry, no distinct front end, live in water, move slowlyBalanced arrangement of parts, perform all the basic life functions
8 Links on Animal Symmetry Click the SciLinks button for links on animal symmetry.
10 Sponges - Sponges and Cnidarians Structures surrounding the central cavity of a sponge are adapted for different functions.
11 Sponges - Sponges and Cnidarians The sexual reproduction of sponges involves a larval stage that moves. Adult sponges stay in one place.
12 Calculating a Rate - Sponges and Cnidarians To calculate the rate of water flow in a sponge, divide the volume of water that the sponge filters by the time it takes the water to pass through the sponge.Flow rate = Volume of water/TimeFor example, a marble-sized sponge filters 15.6 liters of water in a day. How many liters does it filter per hour?Practice ProblemIn four days, a sponge filters 1,200 L. What is its rate of water flow per day?300 L/day
13 Cnidarians - Sponges and Cnidarians Cnidarians have two basic body plans, the vase-shaped polyp and the bowl-shaped medusa.
14 Cnidarians - Sponges and Cnidarians Cnidarians use stinging cells to capture food and defend themselves.
15 Cnidarians - Sponges and Cnidarians The life cycle of a moon jelly has both a polyp and a medusa stage.
16 Comparing and Contrasting - Sponges and CnidariansComparing and ContrastingAs you read, compare and contrast sponges and cnidarians by completing a table like the one below.FeatureSpongesCnidariansPolyp or medusa, central body cavity, tentaclesBody structureHollow body with poresCell type that traps foodCollar cellsStinging cellsMethod(s) of reproductionSexual and asexualSexual and asexual
18 Characteristics of Worms Biologists classify worms into three major phyla—flatworms, roundworms, and segmented worms.
19 Life Cycle of a Dog Tapeworm - WormsLife Cycle of a Dog TapewormThis flatworm is a parasite that lives in more that one host during its life cycle.
20 Roundworm Numbers - Worms Biologists counted all the roundworms living in a plot of soil. Then they calculated the percentage that lives in different depths of soil.
21 Roundworm Numbers - Worms Reading Graphs: Where in the soil was the largest percentage of roundworms found?In the first centimeter
22 Roundworm Numbers - Worms Calculating: What is the total percentage of roundworms found in the first 3-cm depth of soil?About 87%
23 Roundworm Numbers - Worms Drawing Conclusions: What is the relationship between the depth of soil and the abundance of roundworms in the soil?The deeper the soil, the fewer the worms
24 Segmented Worms - Worms Earthworms and other segmented worms have bodies made up of many linked sections called segments.
25 Using Prior Knowledge - Worms Before you read, write what you know about worms in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, write what you learn.What You KnowWorms are long and skinny.Worms live in the ground and digest soil.Worms are slimy and wriggly.What You LearnedWorms have bilateral symmetry.Some worms are flat.Some worms live in water.Some worms are parasites.Worms have a nervous system.
26 Click the PHSchool.com button for an activity about worms. More on WormsClick the PHSchool.com button for an activity about worms.
28 Graphic Organizer The Life of a Sponge Sponge releases sperm. Sperm enter another sponge and fertilize egg cell.Larva settles on a surface and develops into adult sponge.The Life of a SpongeWater currents carry away larva.Larva develops.