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© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation. Fundamentals of Pharmacology for Veterinary Technicians Chapter 1 A Brief History of Veterinary Pharmacology
© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation A History of Veterinary Pharmacology Origins of veterinary pharmacology date back to the early 1700s in Europe Study of the physical and chemical characteristics of materials used as medicine is known as materia medica Scientists extracted and synthesized drugs from plant components, bacteria, and animal sources Today most drugs are made synthetically in laboratories
© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation Understanding Pharmacological Terms Pharmaco- means drug –Pharmacology is the study of drugs Therapy means treatment of disease –Pharmacotherapy is the treatment of disease with medicines Kinetics is the scientific study of motion –Pharmacokinetics is the study of drug motion, which includes absorption, blood levels, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs
© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation Drug Regulation The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) became a government agency to enforce the federal Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 Until the late 1930s, the FDA had little power to determine and enforce correct drug dosage information In 1938, Congress passed the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA), which required that a drug be adequately tested to demonstrate its safety when used as its label directs In 1972, the FDCA was amended to include many more protections
© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation Drug Regulation The FDA is headed by a commissioner and organized into a number of different centers The FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) ensures that approved veterinary medicines will not harm animals The 1972 amendments to the FDCA made drug manufacturers specify drug withdrawal periods and detection methods for determining drug residues in animal foodstuffs
© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation Prescription Drugs Prescription drugs are regulated by the FDA and are limited to use under the supervision of a veterinarian or physician, because of their potential danger, toxicity concerns, administration difficulty, or other considerations Prescription drugs are prescribed to animals once a veterinarian/client/patient relationship has been established –Veterinarian/client/patient relationships arise when an animal is seen and examined by a veterinarian who assumes responsibility for making clinical assessments based on sufficient knowledge about the animal’s health
© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation Extra-label Drugs Extra-label drugs are drugs used in a manner that is not specifically described on the FDA- approved label –May include use of a drug for an animal when the drug is only approved for use in humans –May include use of a drug for a treatment that is not listed on the FDA-approved drug label Extra-label drug use is allowed under the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994 (AMDUCA) –The key constraints of AMDUCA are that any extra- label use must be by or on the order of a veterinarian within the context of a veterinarian/client/patient relationship and that the use cannot result in drug residues in food-producing animals
© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation Over-the-Counter Drugs Over-the-counter drugs (OTC drugs) are drugs that do not have a significant potential for toxicity or do not require special administration –Aspirin is an example of an OTC drug
© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation Controlled Substances Controlled substances are drugs considered dangerous because of their potential for human abuse or misuse Controlled substances are regulated by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) through the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 Controlled substances are labeled at multiple schedule levels (see Table 1-2)
© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation Controlled Substance Monitoring Veterinarians who use or prescribe controlled substances must register annually with the DEA, keep the DEA informed of all address changes, and receive a registration number to be used on all prescriptions and supply orders Controlled substances must be stored in a locked cabinet or safe Authorized handlers of controlled substances must keep records of orders, receipts, uses, discards, and thefts of controlled substances for two years following each transaction –Controlled substance use is usually recorded in a controlled substance log
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