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Chapter 12: Organizing Your Speech

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1 Chapter 12: Organizing Your Speech
COMM3 Verderber, Sellnow, and Verderber © 2014 Cengage Learning

2 Learning Outcomes LO Describe methods for developing the body of your speech LO Explain how to create an introduction LO Explain how to prepare a conclusion LO Examine guidelines for listing sources LO Develop a method for reviewing the outline © 2014 Cengage Learning

3 ACTION STEPS Organizing Your Speech
Action Step 3 Organize Ideas into a Well-structured Outline.

4 Organization Although every speech should have an introduction, a body, and a conclusion, not all speeches that have these components are well organized. Organizing, the process of structuring the material you will present in your speech, is guided by what you learned when you conducted your audience analysis. © 2014 Cengage Learning

5 Learning Outcome 12-1 Choose Main Points The first step when organizing the body of a speech is identifying the main ideas you want to share. Main points are complete sentences representing the two to four central ideas your audience needs to understand if you are to achieve your speech goal. © 2014 Cengage Learning

6 Write a Thesis Statement
Learning Outcome 12-1 Write a Thesis Statement A thesis statement is a one- or two-sentence summary of your speech that incorporates your general and specific goals and previews the main points. © 2014 Cengage Learning

7 Outline the Speech Body
Learning Outcome 12-1 Outline the Speech Body Once you have chosen your main points and written a thesis statement, you can begin to organize the information you want to present under each main point. Speech outlines are full-sentence written frameworks of the sequential and hierarchical relationships among the ideas presented in a speech. © 2014 Cengage Learning

8 Katie’s Speech Framework
Figure 12.1 Katie’s Speech Framework © 2014 Cengage Learning

9 Learning Outcome 12-1 Outline Hierarchy In most speeches, there are three levels of hierarchy: Main points Subpoints Sub-subpoints Writing your main points and subpoints in complete sentences will help you clarify the relationships between main points and subpoints. © 2014 Cengage Learning

10 General Form for a Speech Outline
Figure 12.2 General Form for a Speech Outline © 2014 Cengage Learning

11 Organizational Patterns
Learning Outcome 12-1 Organizational Patterns An organizational pattern is a logical way to structure information that makes it easy for an audience to follow what is being said. Four fundamental patterns are: Time order Narrative order Topical order Logical reasons order © 2014 Cengage Learning

12 Subpoints Subpoints are statements that elaborate on a main point.
Learning Outcome 12-1 Subpoints Subpoints are statements that elaborate on a main point. A main point may have two, three, or even more subpoints depending on the complexity of it. Subpoints use supporting material—developmental material you gathered through secondary and primary research. © 2014 Cengage Learning

13 Learning Outcome 12-1 Outlining Subpoints Subpoints should be represented on your outline in full sentences. It helps to include internal references for items of information you found in secondary sources. As with main points, subpoints should be revised until they are clearly stated. © 2014 Cengage Learning

14 Learning Outcome 12-1 Transitions Transitions are words, phrases, or sentences that allow you to move smoothly from one point to another by showing the relationship between the two ideas. Section transitions are complete sentences that show the relationship between or bridge major parts of the speech. Signposts are words or phrases that connect pieces of supporting material to the main point or subpoint they address. © 2014 Cengage Learning

15 Developing the Introduction
Learning Outcome 12-2 Developing the Introduction Once you have developed the body of the speech, you can decide how to introduce it. An introduction is generally about 10 percent of the length of the entire speech. © 2014 Cengage Learning

16 Developing the Conclusion
Learning Outcome 12-3 Developing the Conclusion Effective conclusions heighten the impact of a good speech by: Summarizing the main ideas Leaving the audience with a vivid impression Even though it is a relatively short part of the speech, your conclusion should be carefully planned. © 2014 Cengage Learning

17 Summarizing Main Points
Learning Outcome 12-3 Summarizing Main Points An effective speech conclusion includes an abbreviated restatement of your thesis. © 2014 Cengage Learning

18 Leaving a Vivid Impression
Learning Outcome 12-3 Leaving a Vivid Impression A clincher is a short memorable statement that provides a sense of closure by driving home the importance of your speech goal in a memorable way. Two effective strategies for clinching are using vivid imagery and creating an appeal to action. © 2014 Cengage Learning

19 Compiling a Reference List
Learning Outcome 12-4 Compiling a Reference List Regardless of the type or length of your speech, you’ll want to prepare a list of the sources you used. The two standard methods of organizing sources are: Alphabetically by author’s last name By content category For speeches with a short list, the first method is most efficient. For long speeches with a lengthy source list, it is helpful to group sources by content categories. © 2014 Cengage Learning

20 Learning Outcome 12-5 Reviewing the Outline After creating all of the parts of the outline, you must: Put them together in complete outline form Edit them to make sure the outline is well organized and well worded © 2014 Cengage Learning

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