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1 Physiology Exam 1 Study Chapter 6 Communication & homeostasis
2 What are the two basic physiological signals?
3 -Chemical -Electrical
4 What are the basic methods of cell-cell communication?
5 -Direct cytoplasmic transfer- Gap junctions -Contact-dependent signals -Local communication -Long distance communication
6 Which method of cell-to-cell communication occurs by chemicals that diffuse through the extracellular fluid?
7 -Local Communication
8 This method of cell-to-cell communication involves the transfer of chemical and electrical signals between adjacent cells.
9 -Gap junctions
10 Where would you expect to find Gap Junctions in the body?
11 -Heart -Smooth muscle of the GI tract
12 What are the cells that receive electrical or chemical signals called?
13 -Target Cells
14 What is the simplest form of cell-to-cell communication?
15 -Gap junctions
16 A gap junction forms from the union of membrane- spanning proteins called____.
18 When do connected cells function like a synctium?
19 -When the gap junction (connexon) is open.
20 What is the only means by which electrical signals can pass directly from cell to cell?
21 -Gap junctions
22 What method of cell-to-cell communication utilize Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) to transfer signals?
23 -Contact Dependent
24 How is local cell-to-cell communication accomplished?
25 -Paracrine signaling -Autocrine signaling
26 If a chemical signal acts on the cell that secreted it, it is called an _____ signal.
28 If a chemical acts on cells in the immediate vicinity of the cell that secreted it, its is called ____ signal.
30 If a cell secretes chemicals that act on distal cells it is a ____ signal.
32 What is secreted by neurons to act on itself or neighboring cells?
34 What are regulatory substances that mediate immune responses?
36 Why are paracrine and autocrine signals only able to reach adjacent cells?
37 -Because both of these signals reach their targets by diffusing through the interstitial fluid. Diffusion is limited by distance.
38 Most long-distance communication between cells is the responsibility of what two organ systems?
39 -Nervous system -Endocrine system
40 An electrical signal travels along a ___ until it reaches the very end of the cell, where it is translated into a ____.
41 Neuron, Neurocrine
42 If a neurocrine diffuses into the blood it is called a ____.
44 If a neurocrine acts more slowly as an autocrine or paracrine signal, it is called a ______.
46 If a neurocrine has a rapid effect it is called a _____.
48 What are Cytokines?
49 Cytokines are regulatory peptides that act close to the site where they secreted.
50 True or False? Cytokines are stored much like hormones?
51 False (Cytokines are produced on demand.)
52 True or False? A cytokine can act as an autocrine and a paracrine.
54 Where are receptor proteins located?
55 -Cytosol -Cell membrane -Nucleus
56 This type of receptor mimics the effect of the naturally occuring ligand?
58 Which signal molecule is unable to enter the cell?
60 What are the four classes of membrane receptors?
61 -Ligand-gated ion channels -Intergrin linked to cytoskeleton -G protein-coupled receptor with seven membrane -Receptor Enzyme
62 What is the result of a ligand binding to a ligand gated channel?
63 -Channel opens or closes
64 Which type of regulation results in the reduction in the number of receptors and/or binding affinity for the ligand?
65 Down- regulation
66 What is the result of a ligand binding to a G protein coupled receptor?
67 -The G-protein receptor opens an ion channel or alters enzyme activity
68 Which membrane receptor results in the activation of an intracellular enzyme?
69 -Enzyme receptor
70 Which membrane receptor result in a change to the cytoskeleton?
72 Which of the four categories of membrane receptors do NOT use signal transduction?
73 -Ligand gated
74 Where are receptor proteins located?
75 -Inside the cell or -On the cell membrane
76 Chemical signals fall into what two broad categories?
77 -Lipophillic -Lipophobic
78 Where would you find Target cell receptors?
79 -Nucleus -Cytosol -On the cell membrane
80 If you find target cell receptors on the cell membrane, they are likely to be what type protiens?
81 -Intergral proteins
82 The location where a chemical signal binds to its receptor largely depends on what?
83 -Whether the signal molecule can enter the cell
84 About half of all drugs currently in use act on?
85 -Receptors proteins
86 What is signal transduction?
87 -The process by which an extracellular signal molecule activates a membrane receptor that in turn alters intracellular molecules to create a response.
88 What is a transducer?
89 -A device that convets a signal from one form into a different form.
90 What turns a signal molecule into multiple second messengers?
91 -Signal amplification
92 What is the function of an amplifier enzyme?
93 -An enzyme that activates several more molecules.
94 Place the following words in correct order of signal transduction: * RESPONSE * RECEPTOR * AMPLIFIER * TRANSDUCER * EXTERNAL SIGNAL
96 What is protein kinase?
97 -Enzymes that transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein.
98 What two things can an activated membrane receptor do after it turns on its associated proteins?
99 -Activate protein kinase -Activate amplifier enzymes
100 What is protein kinase?
101 -Enzymes that transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein.
102 Once created by amplifier enzymes, second messeger molecules do what three things?
103 -Alter gating channels -Increase intracellular calcium -Change enzyme activity
104 What are the three most common amplifier enzymes?
105 -Adenylyl cyclase -Guanylyl cyclase -Phospolipase C
106 Where is the amplifier enzyme Adenylyl cyclase located?
108 What activates Adenylyl cyclase?
109 -G protein- coupled receptor
110 Where is the amplifier enzyme Guanylyl cyclase located?
111 -Membrane -Cytosol
112 What activates Guanylyl cyclase?
113 -Receptor enzyme Nitric Oxide (NO)
114 What are the three categories of second messengers?
115 -Nucleotides -Ions -Lipid-derived
117 Which second messenger is causes exocytosis, muscle contraction, cytoskeleton movement, channel opening?
118 -Ca 2+
119 Ca 2+ Binds to what?
120 -Calmodulin and other proteins
121 Name the two second messengers that fall under nucleotides
122 -cAMP -cGMP
123 Which second messengers activates protein kinase A, G, C ?
124 -cAMP activates protein kinase A -cGMP activates protein kinase G -DAG activates protien kinase C (there is a C in DAG, Diacylglycerol )
125 Which second messenger releases calcium from intracellular stores?
126 -IP 3
127 Which second messenger(s) effects phosphorylates and alters channel opening ?
128 Both cAMP & cGMP (nucleotides)
129 What are the steps of signal transduction ?
130 1.Signal molecule binds to receptor that 2.Activates a protein that 3.Creates second messengers that 4.Creates a response
131 Name the two regions of receptor enzymes and there locations ?
132 1.Receptor region; extracellular side of cell membrane 2.Enzyme region; on the cytoplasmic side
133 Where are ligand- gated ion channels most often located ?
134 Excitable tissues of nerve and muscle
135 Where are most intracellular Calcium ions stored ?
136 Endoplasmic reticulum
137 What 5 properties are used to compare Neural and Endocrine Control ?
138 1.Specificity 2.Speed 3.Duration of action 4.Coding for stimulus intensity 5.Nature of signal
140 The duration of action of this type of reflex is usually very short ?
141 Neural Reflex
142 What mediates a longer duration of action for a neural reflex ?
144 Chemical signals are secreted in the blood for distribution throughout the body by this type of reflex?
145 Endocrine Reflex
146 The response to this type of reflex depends on which cells have receptors for the hormone?
147 Endocrine Reflex
148 Each signal is identical in strength pertaining to this type of reflex?
149 Neural Reflex
150 This type of reflex coding for stimulus intensity is correlated with the amount released?
151 Endocrine Reflex
152 This type of reflex coding for stimulus intensity is correlated with frequency?
153 Neural Reflex
155 Name the Afferent pathway of an Endocrine Reflex
156 It doesn’t have an Afferent pathway
157 Name the Efferent pathway of an Endocrine Reflex
159 Name the Integrating center of Neural and Neuroendocrine Reflex
160 Brain or spinal cord
161 Name the intergrating center of an Endocrine Reflex
162 Endocrine Cell
163 Name the Effector(s) of a Neural reflex
164 Muscles & glands, some adipose tissue
165 Name the Effector(s) of a Neuroendocrine reflex
166 Most cells of the body
167 Name the Effector(s) of a Endocrine reflex
168 Most cells of the body
169 Which Reflex response includes contraction and secretion primarily?
170 Neural Reflex
171 Which Reflex sensor or receptor includes special and somatic sensory receptors?
172 Neural Reflex & Neuroendocrine Reflex
173 Match the following: *Food in stomach*Target Cell *Insulin*Stimulus *Spinal Cord & Brain*Classic hormone *Adipose cell*integrating center
174 *Food in stomach= *Stimulus *Insulin = *Classic hormone *Spinal Cord & Brain = *Integrating center *Adipose cell = *Target Cell
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