--CHARACTERIZATION- - Big Question: Who is this character and How do I know that? The method a writer uses to reveal the personality of a character. A. Direct characterization: direct statements about a character’s personality B. Indirect characterization: revealing a character’s personality through the character’s words and actions and through what other characters think and say about the character
--CHARACTER TYPES-- Big Question: Does the character make big changes in his/her life or stay the same? Static character – a character who remains the same from beginning to end Dynamic character – a character who changes throughout the story
Protagonist: the main character of the story Antagonist: the adversary (against the main character)
--MOOD-- Big question: How does the author want ME to feel? The emotional quality or atmosphere of a story –A mysterious mood might read like this… Things are unclear, and everything important in the story tries to remain hidden. Antagonists try not to show their real motives, no-one knows what they are after. The streets are dimmed by fog, and the main characters rarely understand all that happens around them.
--TONE-- Big Question: What is the AUTHOR’S voice/mood/attitude? The writer’s attitude toward the subject
--FORESHADOWING-- Big Question: Can anything in the story help me predict what happens later on? The use of clues by the author to prepare readers for events that will happen later in a story
--flashback-- Big Question: Are there any moments when the author talks about something that happened before? The writer presents past events during the current events of the story to show background information
--SYMBOL-- Big Question: Does this object have a not-so-obvious meaning? An object, person, place or experience that means more than what it is Literal Meaning = ? Figurative Meaning = ?
-- Conflict- - Big Question: What’s the problem and who is involved in it? the opposition of forces which ties one incident to another and makes the plot move –Person VS Another Person –Person VS Fate (Destiny) –Person VS Nature –Person VS Society –Person VS Self
--Setting-- Big Question: what IMPACT does the setting have on this story? time and location in which a story takes place consider how setting contributes to a story
--Point of view– (pov) Big Question: Who is speaking? First-Person POV: Narrator participates in the action of the story as a character. –Uses “I” Third-Person POV: Does NOT participate in the action, but lets the reader know how ALL characters think and feel. –Uses “he,” “she,” or “it” Second-Person POV: Directly addresses the reader. –Uses “you” (might be directly in the story or implied)
--IRONY-- What is EXPECTED is not what HAPPENS. –Three types of irony: Situational irony – the actual outcome of a situation is the opposite of someone’s expectations Verbal irony – a person says one thing and means another (You wreak your car and exclaim, “Well this is great!”) Dramatic irony – the audience has important information that characters in a literary work do not have Hint: Irony IS in “Death by Scrabble!”
--INFERENCE-- Big Question: What educated guess can I make based on the characters/plot? Making a conclusion based on evidence. (In literature it describes the act of figuring something out by using what you already know.) –Example: [A + B = C] If A = 2 and B = 3 then using what you know, you can deduce what C equals. –Example: In The Three Little Pigs, the reader can INFER that the wolf is going to try to blow down the third pig’s house.
--allusion-- Big Question: Is there a reference to something else? An implied or indirect reference to a person/event/thing in history, mythology, religion, or popular culture.
--DICTION-- Big Question: what is this author’s style of writing? The writer’s choice of words –Good writers choose their words carefully to create style and to convey a meaning or feeling
--DENOTATION-- Literal or dictionary meaning of a word –Example: Home = a house, dwelling, a place where one lives permanently -- CONNOTATION-- Suggested/implied meanings associated with a word beyond its dictionary meaning –Example: Home - family, loving, safe, warm
--Theme --Theme -- Big Question: What is the author trying to tell us? The central message of a story
--IMAGERY-- Big Question: how does the author make me feel like I’m in the story? “Word pictures” that writers create to evoke an emotional response. –A–Appeal to sensory details Sight Hearing Touch Taste Smell
--SIMILE-- A figure of speech using “like” or “as” to compare seemingly unlike things –Example: The corn was as high as an elephant’s eye. I mean really! Do corn and an Elephant have ANYTHING in common?
--METAPHOR-- A figure of speech that compares two or more things WITHOUT using “like” or “as.” –Example He’s a bear when he’s angry! (Notice how it’s DIRECTLY stated. “This IS that” format.)
--Extended metaphor-- Compares two things WITHOUT using “like” or “as” for an EXTENDED time throughout the text.
--PERSONIFICATION-- A figure of speech in which an animal, object, force of nature, or idea is given human qualities or characteristics –Example: The shadow crept along the hallway.
ExpositionExposition : The beginning of a story where the characters are introduced and the setting (background info) is revealed. Rising ActionRising Action: This is where a problem(s) arise and tension builds in the story ClimaxClimax : The most exciting point and turning point of the story. The reader wants to know what happens next Falling ActionFalling Action : The action that follows directly after the climax. This is where the problem(s) begins unwinding ResolutionResolution : This is the end of the story where the problem(s) is worked out The 5 Parts of Plot