Presentation on theme: "India and Persia. Indus River Valley Civilization People began to settle in the Indus River Valley about 3500 B.C. but civilization began about 2500 B.C."— Presentation transcript:
Indus River Valley Civilization People began to settle in the Indus River Valley about 3500 B.C. but civilization began about 2500 B.C. Two major cities in this civilization were Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. Artifacts tell us how these people lived. We know they had a system of writing; however, we have not been able to decode it. Statues that may represent gods and goddesses suggest they had religious beliefs.
The Harappan civilization was thriving, but vanished sometime about 1700 B.C. Many archaeologists suspect this was because of a natural disaster such as a monsoon, flood, or earthquake. Remains found at Mohenjo-Daro reveal complex architecture and city planning. The people used a system of weights and measures to construct buildings and roads. Brick homes were laid out in a grid system, like many modern cities. People enjoyed a large public bath and even garbage collection.
The Aryans Arrive About 1500 B.C. the Aryans arrived in the Indus River Valley. They crossed the Hindu Kush Mountains from the north and went through the Kyber Pass before arriving in the Indus River Valley.
The Aryans Arrive The Aryans spoke Sanskrit. It was different from the other languages spoken in the valley. The Aryans were nomads and continued their nomadic way of life, herding sheep, cattle, and goats. The Aryans brought new technology- the chariot. Left behind few artifacts. What they did leave was literature and their main language, sanskrit. The Vedas contained their stories and songs. It also describes contests between gods and humans. These stories were written in sanskrit.
The Persians Arrive By about the 6 th century, 16 Aryan states had been formed. The Aryan culture had spread east to the Ganges River Valley. Another group of people from the north—the Persians—then began to arrive in the Indus River Valley. News about riches in the valley encouraged people in Persia to migrate south. Armies sent by Persian kings moved into two regions in the Indus River Valley.
The Persian Empire Cyrus II was the founder of the Persian Empire. The Empire was constructed after the Persians invaded the lands of the Babylonians, Lydians, and the Egyptians. King Darius I brought the Persian Empire to India.
Persian Achievements The development of roads and trade by the Persians connected India with other lands in Central Asia. Zoroastrianism: a religion found by the Persian prophet Zoroaster. Although Persian religion recognized many gods, Zoroaster identified one god as supreme and the enemy of evil. Still found in South Asia
Chandragupta Maurya started the Mauryan Empire in 320 B.C. and extended its borders to Persia. When his grandson Ashoka took control, the government was highly organized. Controlled many aspects of life: How artisans worked How doctors treated their patients India has a strong group of civil service workers, a powerful army, and even an army of spies.
Arts and Sciences Mauryan Empire ended in 185 B.C. and the Guptas took control in 320 A.D. Made great achievements in science such as astronomy. Mathematics expanded with the development of the number system we use today. Literature, poetry, and art flourished.
More Achievements… Higher education became available, but only to men. Sanskrit became the language of the wealthy. India’s economy began to improve along with trade. Silk, cotton, and linen became valuable exports. The Gupta Empire ended with the arrival of the Huns.