2 Unit 1. Writing a Topic Sentence Topic sentence A topic sentence (also known as a focus sentence) organizes an entire paragraph, and you should be careful to include one in most of your major paragraphs. The topic sentence is the most important sentence in the paragraph. It is the main idea of the paragraph.
3 Unit 1. Writing a Topic Sentence The topic sentence has two parts: the topic and the controlling idea. The topic is the subject of the paragraph. Example: The color yellow is the color of mental activity. Topic: the color yellow
4 Unit 1. Writing a Topic Sentence The controlling idea limits or controls your topic to one aspect that you want to write about. Example: Brown is the color of material security. (topic) (controlling idea)
5 Unit 1. Writing a Topic Sentence Supporting Sentences Supporting sentences develop the topic sentence. They give the reader reasons, examples, and more facts about the topic sentence. They must all be related to the topic sentence.
6 Unit 1. Writing a Topic Sentence The Concluding SentenceThe Concluding sentence is the last sentence of your paragraph. This sentence signals the end of the paragraph.The concluding sentence is similar to the topic sentence. Both are general sentences.
7 Unit 1. Writing a Topic Sentence The concluding sentence can be written in two ways:State the topic sentence in different words.or2. Summarize the main points of the paragraph.Begin a concluding sentence with one of these phrases: In conclusion or In summary
8 Creating an Essay Outline Essay An essay is a piece of writing that is several paragraphs long. An essay, just like a paragraph, is about one topic. Since its topic is broad, the essay is divided into paragraphs, one for each major point. To tie all the parts together, an introduction is added to the beginning and the conclusion to the end.
9 Creating an Essay Outline An essay has three parts:an introduction,a body (one or more paragraphs),a conclusion.
10 Creating an Essay Outline Simple Outline I. Introduction II. Point A III. Point B IV. Point C V. Conclusion
11 Creating an Essay Outline Detailed Outline I. Introduction A. What is the paper about (thesis statement) B. What are the points that will be covered C. Transition sentence to Point A
12 Creating an Essay Outline II. Point A (Topic Sentence) A. Sub-point a B. Sub-point b C. Sub-point c D. Point A conclusion and transition to Point B (one sentence)
13 Creating an Essay Outline III. Point B (Topic Sentence) A. Sub-point a B. Sub-point b C. Sub-point c D. Point B conclusion and transition to Point C (one sentence)
14 Creating an Essay Outline IV. Point C (Topic Sentence) A. Sub-point a B. Sub-point b C. Sub-point c D. Point C conclusion and (possible) transition to Conclusion
15 Creating an Essay Outline V. Conclusion (different types are possible) A. Summary of Points (and/or) B. Your recommendation Of course, this outline will probably require an explanation for the writing student, as it is a guideline and will have to be adjusted according to the type of paper the student is writing.
16 Unit 3. Writing an Introduction The introduction should grab the reader's attention, set up the issue, and lead in to your thesis. Your intro is merely a buildup of the issue, a stage of bringing your reader into the essay's argument.The introduction of an essay has two parts:General statementsA thesis statement.
17 Unit 3. Writing an Introduction The first statement in an introduction is a general statement about the topic. The second sentence should be less general and so on until the reader comes to the thesis statement.General statementsIntroduce the topic of the essayGive background information on the topic
18 Unit 3. Writing an Introduction Thesis statementis often the last sentence of the introductionstates the specific topicmay state the subtopicsmay state the method of organization
19 Unit 4. Writing the Conclusion The final paragraph of your essay is the conclusion. It tells the reader you have completed your essay. In the conclusion, you either summarize the main points in the body of your essay or rewrite the thesis statement using different ideas. Then you add a final comment or thought on the subject.
20 Unit 4. Writing the Conclusion Begin the conclusion with a transition signal such as: In conclusion In summary To summarize The conclusion summarizes the main points or restates the thesis in different words. It includes a final comment on the subject.
21 Unit 4. Writing the Conclusion There are several ways to write the conclusion.Summarize your main pointswhen you use this method of finishing your essay you simply restate the main points you presented in your essay. Make sure you do not repeat your words exactly however. It is essential that you figure out a new way to say them.
22 Unit 4. Writing the Conclusion Ask a questionwriters often have to leave their readers realizing that there is a problem that needs to be solved or an issue that needs to be resolved. A question is a good way of getting your readers’ attention and getting them thinking about what can be done.
23 Unit 4. Writing the Conclusion 3. Suggest a solution, offer a recommendation, or make a prediction Depending on the topic of your essay, the conclusion might be a good place for you to suggest a solution to a problem that you have discussed or to make a recommendation or a prediction.
24 Units 5-6.Writing an Example Essay In an example essay, each paragraph gives an example to support the thesis statement. To give examples, the following transitions can be used at the beginning of your paragraph. One example of… Take, for example… Another example of… A second example… An additional example… A final example… Finally…
25 Units 5-6.Writing an Example Essay In your body paragraphs, you may use other specific examples to support your topic sentence. The following words and phrases introduce examples: for example or for instance. The have the same meaning. When your sentence begins with for example or for instance, put a comma after these words.
26 Units 5-6.Writing an Example Essay Things to Watch for 1. Examples without a point do not help your essay. A long anecdote from your personal experience isn’t necessarily relevant just because it’s an essay written about you; make sure that your example has a point, and that the point is the one you’re trying to make.
27 Units 5-6.Writing an Example Essay 2. Beware of piling on many examples. You probably needs no less than two and no more than four examples to support its thesis statement, unless you have been assigned to use only a single extended example. 3. Lack of an initial thesis statement to give the example or examples some sense of purpose can make a paper self-destruct before you begin.
28 Unit 7. Describing People The Dominant Impression Often when describing people, we use the dominant impression. It is the main effect a person has on our feelings or senses. We give the dominant impression by selecting the most important feature or character trait of a person and emphasizing it. Adjectives like shy, beautiful, ambitious, or generous can easily give a dominant impression.
29 Unit 7. Describing People The descriptive essay relies on concrete and sensory detail to communicate its point.The author of a descriptive essay must carefully select details to support the dominant impression.
30 Unit 7. Describing People Description very often relies on emotion to convey its point. Due to this, verbs, adverbs and adjectives are more meaningful to the reader than nouns.Unless the description is objective, you must be sure that the dominant impression conveys an attitude.
31 Unit 7. Describing People Write a descriptive essay using dominant impression on one of the following topics:Describe yourself or someone you know, using one or two adjectives to give dominant impression.Describe a group of people, a race, or a nation, using one or two adjectives to give dominant impression.
32 Unit 8. Writing a Narrative Essay Narrative essay is the short story of your own or someone’s life experience, either past or present. Narrative essays help you to enable your new and rewarding perspective. It is necessary the narrative essay you write must contain some lesson in it.
33 Unit 8. Writing a Narrative Essay The introductory part of the narrative essay is one of the most important parts of the essay. It is essential that the introductory part must contain the introduction of your experience and its importance in brief.After giving enough time to your essay it is necessary to read and re-read your narrative essay many times. This will help you to remove all the errors you have made while writing.
34 Unit 8. Writing a Narrative Essay Write a narrative essay on one of the following topics:Write the story of your life or the life of the person you know.Write the story of a famous personDescribe how someone influenced your life.