Presentation on theme: "How people influence each other."— Presentation transcript:
1 How people influence each other. Social PsychologyAttitudeAttractionAggressionGroup BehaviorStudy of how our thoughts, feelings and behaviors are influenced by others.OrHow people influence each other.
2 Attitudes A set of beliefs and feelings. Advertising is ALL based on attitude formation.Mere Exposure Effect- constant contact with stimuli leads to appealCentral Route of persuasion –the listener focuses on the content of the productvs.Peripheral Route of persuasion –listener focuses on the tone of person’s voice & excitement
3 Attitude and Behavior Cognitive Dissonance Theory People want to have consistent attitudes and behaviors….when they are not they experience dissonance (unpleasant tension).Usually they will change their attitude.The teacher was really bad so in that class it is OK.You have a belief that cheating on tests is bad.But you cheat on a test!!!
5 Compliance Strategies Foot-in-the-door phenomenonStart with small request than larger requestTrain or brainwashDoor-in-the-face phenomenonAsk for something big (a car) then ask for something small (a cell phone).Norms of reciprocitycharities give you something like return address stickers hoping you will donate to their cause.
6 Attribution Theory – Fritz Heider Tries to explain how people determine the cause of the behavior they observe.It is either a….Situational Attribution (due to: external social factors)Dispositional Attribution (due to: internal attitudes)InternalattributionsExternalBehavior
7 Effects of Attribution How we explain someone’s behavior affects how we react to it.
8 Situational or dispositional Attributions? A teen crashes the car. One parent says it was because of the slippery road. Another says it’s because he wasn’t paying attention to driving.One parent uses dispositional attributes; the other uses situational attributes.
9 Fundamental Attribution Error We tend to overestimate the role of dispositional factors.Self-Serving Bias We attribute our success to personal/internal factors but attribute our failures to situational/external factors.False Consensus EffectIf you win it is because you are awesome…if you lose, it must have been the coach or weather or….When you start a romance, you assume that they agree with your world views….honeymoon period.
11 The Chameleon EffectConformity: Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999).
12 Social Facilitation Theory If you are really good at something….or it is an easy task…you will perform BETTER in front of a group.Home team advantageIf it is a difficult task or you are not very good at it…you will perform WORSE in front of a group (social impairment).
13 Conformity StudiesAdjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.Normative social influence – causes a person to conform, or change a behavior to gain approval or avoid disapprovalInformation social influence – a person conforms because giving the information is seen as an expert
14 Asch’s Study of Conformity Which line is equal to the standard line? After several others said “3” the subject would say “3”.
15 Asch’s Results About 1/3 of the participants conformed. 70% conformed at least once.To strengthen conformity:The group is unanimousThe group is at least three people.One admires the group’s statusOne had made no prior commitment
16 Milgram’s Study Of Obedience Stanley Milgram designed a study that investigates the effects of authority on obedienceOrdinary people can do shocking things.Ethical issues….Would not have received approval from today’s IRB (Internal Review Board).
19 GroupthinkGroup members suppress their reservations about the ideas supported by the group.They are more concerned with group harmony.Worse in highly cohesive groups.
20 Deindividuation People get swept up in a group and lose sense of self. Feel anonymous and aroused.Explains rioting/mob behaviors.
21 Social LoafingThe tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling efforts toward a common goal than if they were individually accountable.
22 Group Polarization Social Dilemma Groups tend to make more extreme decisions than the individual.Social Dilemma-Individual gain or common good
23 Stereotypes, Prejudice and Discrimination Overgeneralized idea about a group of people.Prejudice:Undeserved (usually negative) attitude towards a group of people. Ethnocentrism is an example of a prejudice.Discrimination:An action based on a prejudice.
24 Is it just race?NOPalestinians and JewsCVHS vs. DHSMen and Women
25 How does prejudice occur? Just world Phenomenon –-Good is rewarded and evil is punished-Blame the victimIn one popular study female and male subjects were told two versions of a story about an interaction between a woman and a man. Both variations were exactly the same, except at the very end the man raped the woman in one and in the other he proposed marriage.In both conditions, both female and male subjects viewed the woman's (identical) actions as inevitably leading to the (very different) results.In-Group -People with whom one shares a common identity.versusOut-Groups. Those perceived as different from one’s ingroup.In-Group Bias- The tendency to favor one’s own group.Scapegoat Theory- people may be prejudice toward a group in order to vent their anger
26 Combating Prejudice Contact Theory Contact between hostile groups will reduce animosity if they are made to work towards a superordinate goal.Serif camp studyElection of Obama?
27 Prejudices can often lead to a…. Self-Fulfilling ProphecyA prediction that causes itself to be true.Rosenthal and Jacobson’s “Pygmalion in the Classroom” experiment.
28 Psychology of Aggression Two types of aggressionInstrumental AggressionHostile AggressionTheories of Aggression:Bandura’s ModelingFrustration-Aggression HypothesisFrustration creates anger, which generates aggressionAversive stimuli: physical pain, personal insults, foul odors, hot temperatures, cigarette smoke, ect……
29 Prosocial Behavior Kitty Genovese case in Kew Gardens NY. Bystander Effect:Conditions in which people are more or less likely to help one another. In general…the more people around…the less chance of help….because of…Diffusion of ResponsibilityPluralistic IgnorancePeople decide what to do by looking to others.
31 Proximity Geographic nearness Mere exposure effect: Repeated exposure to something breeds liking.Taiwanese Letters
32 Reciprocal Liking You are more likely to like someone who likes you. Why?Except in elementary school!!!!
33 Similarity Paula Abdul was wrong- opposites do NOT attract. Birds of the same feather do flock together.Similarity breeds content.
34 Liking through Association Classical Conditioning can play a part in attraction.“I love Theo’s Wings. If I see the same waitress every time I go there, I may begin to associate that waitress with the good feelings I get from Theo's.”
37 Physically attractiveness predicts dating frequency (they date more). They are perceived as healthier, happier, more honest and successful than less attractive counterparts.
38 Beauty and CultureObesity is so revered among Mauritania's white Moor Arab population that the young girls are sometimes force-fed to obtain a weight the government has described as "life-threatening".
39 The right one is said to be keener on long term relationships.
43 Zimbardo’s Prison Study Showed how we deindividuate AND become the roles we are given.Philip Zimbardo has students at Stanford U play the roles of prisoner and prison guards in the basement of psychology building.They were given uniforms and numbers for each prisoner.What do you think happened?
44 1. Your unique ideas about how a college class should be run, what a typical straight "A" student is like, and how a typical professor will act are all examples ofa.Prejudicesb.Attitudesc.Attributionsd.Social schemase. Confirmation Bias
45 2. A father suggests that his son's low marks in school are due to the child's laziness. The father has made __________ attribution.a.an externalb.a distinctivec.an internald.a situationale.a self serving
46 3. Attributing one's successes to dispositional factors and one's failures to situational factors is referred to asa. the fundamental attribution errorb. a self-serving biasc. the actor-observer biasd. a self-enhancing strategye. the just world hypothesis
47 4. In Stanley Milgram's research on obedience, the "teacher" routinely a.resisted the authority figureb.obeyed the authority figurec.resisted the authority figure, but obeyed the confederated.resisted the authority figure when the learner appeared to be injurede.Conformed to other participant’s answers
48 5. The "bystander effect" is the finding that a.the probability that a witness to an emergency will help increases as the number of bystanders increasesb.a group of witnesses to an emergency will all tend to cooperate to provide helpc.the probability that a witness to an emergency will help decreases as the number of bystanders increasesd.bystanders' willingness to help depends on the seriousness of the emergencye.The probability of the group cooperating with the leader regardless of the decision
49 6. Diffusion of responsibility refers to the a.tendency of others to assume that someone else will take responsibility in a crisisb.basis for performing prosocial behaviorc.halo effect in aggressiond.loss of identity one experiences in mob violence/aggressione.The foundation of prejudice
50 7. The reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups is referred to as a.bystander apathyb.diffusion of responsibilityc.extroverted effortd.social loafinge.social impairment
51 8. When the jury entered the jury room most of the jurors thought that the defendant in the case was probably innocent, but some weren't certain. After discussing the case for four hours, all twelve jurors are now firmly convinced that the defendant did not commit the crime. The strengthening of the jurors' opinions following group discussion is consistent with which of the following processes?a.Group thinkb.The bystander effectc.Reciprocityd.Group polarizatione.Social facilitation
52 9. Which of the following is not characteristic of groupthink? a.dividing the world into the ingroup and the outgroupb.censoring dissent from group membersc.gathering all the relevant information before making a decisiond.censoring information that contradicts the group's viewse. Blindly agreeing with the leader of a group
53 10. A man who believes that "women just don't make good leaders" may dwell on his female supervisor's mistakes and quickly forget about her achievements. This scenario illustrates which of the following concepts?a.defensive attributionb.the illusory correlation effectc.the fundamental attribution errord.the bystander effecte.diffusion of responsibility
54 11. Ethnocentrism refers to the tendency to a.focus on one's own needs as opposed to what is best for the groupb.evaluate people in one's own group as superior to othersc.model the attitudes of members of one's immediate familyd.identify with members of a popular outgroupe.being open-minded to other cultures
56 2006 FRQ #2Zoey wants to buy a new car but is having difficulty deciding what kind of car to buy. She is feeling anxious and wants to make a decision soon. Zoey visits several local car dealers and asks for the advice of some of her friends. Explain how each of the following could influence her decision. Be sure to discuss each concept in the context of Zoey’s decision.Approach-avoidance conflictCentral route persuasionHeuristicsIndividualismRationalizationSelf-efficacyThe autonomic nervous systemThe foot-in-the-door phenomenon
57 2003 FRQ Define the following psychological concepts Cognitive dissonanceConformityIncentive motivationNegative reinforcementPhysiological addictionB. Use one specific example for each of the concepts in part A to explain how the concept might relate to either the development of or the continuation of a smoking habit. It is not necessary to use the same example for each concept.